朋友

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Chinese

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friend friend
simp. and trad.
(朋友)
Wikipedia has articles on:

Pronunciation 1

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (3) (35)
Final () (129) (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I III
Fanqie
Baxter bong hjuwX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bəŋ/ /ɦɨuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bəŋ/ /ɦiuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/bəŋ/ /ɣiəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bəŋ/ /ɦuwX/
Li
Rong
/bəŋ/ /ɣiuX/
Wang
Li
/bəŋ/ /ɣĭəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱəŋ/ /i̯ə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
péng yǒu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
pang4 jau5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
péng yǒu
Middle
Chinese
‹ bong › ‹ hjuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]ˁəŋ/ /*[ɢ]ʷəʔ/
English set of cowries; friend friend

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 9663 15596
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bɯːŋ/ /*ɢʷɯʔ/

Noun

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朋友

  1. friend (Classifier: m c;  m c)
    童年朋友  ―  tóngnián de péngyǒu  ―  childhood friend
    結交朋友结交朋友  ―  jiéjiāo xīn péngyǒu  ―  to make new friends
    知道朋友哪裡 [MSC, trad.]
    知道朋友哪里 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā bù zhīdào péngyǒu de jiā zài nǎlǐ. [Pinyin]
    He doesn't know where his friend's house is.
    呢個朋友 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    呢个朋友 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    ni1 go3 hai6 ngo5 go3 pang4 jau5. [Jyutping]
    This is my friend.
    朋友佗位 [Hokkien, trad.]
    朋友佗位 [Hokkien, simp.]
    I m̄ chai pêng-iú ê chhù tī tó-ūi. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    He doesn't know where his friend's house is.
    朋友底塊 [Teochew, trad.]
    朋友底块 [Teochew, simp.]
    i1 m6 zai1 pêng5 iu2 gai5 lai6 do6 di7 go3. [Peng'im]
    He doesn't know where his friend's house is.
    近況斷續朋友耳畔 [MSC, trad.]
    近况断续朋友耳畔 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ de jìnkuàng duànxù cóng péngyǒu kǒu zhōng chuán dào wǒ ěrpàn. [Pinyin]
    Your news intermittently came to my ears through friends' words.
    真的只是普通朋友 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Wǒ gēn tā zhēnde zhǐshì pǔtōng péngyǒu. [Pinyin]
    She and I are really just friends.
    世界可悲事情莫過於喜歡朋友 [MSC, trad.]
    世界可悲事情莫过于喜欢朋友 [MSC, simp.]
    Shìjiè shàng zuì kěbēi de shìqíng, mòguòyú nǐ xǐhuān tā, tā què zhǐ bǎ nǐ dāng péngyǒu. [Pinyin]
    The saddest thing in the world is liking someone but they only see you as a friend.
    1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) Term of address to a South Asian person.
  2. (euphemistic) boyfriend or girlfriend; partner
Synonyms
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  • (friend):
Antonyms
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  • (antonym(s) of friend):
Hyponyms
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  • (friend): 好友 (hǎoyǒu, “good friend”), 老友 (lǎoyǒu, “old friend”)
Derived terms
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See also

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Further reading

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Pronunciation 2

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Noun

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朋友

  1. (archaic) large number of retainers
  2. (archaic, Ming dynasty) designation given by government bureaucrats to Confucian students
Synonyms
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  • (large number of retainers): (archaic) 群臣 (qúnchén)

Descendants

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Sino-Xenic (朋友):

Others:

Japanese

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
ほう
Jinmeiyō
ゆう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

/hoː iu//hoːjiu//hoːjuː/

From Middle Chinese compound 朋友 (MC bong hjuwX).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ほう)(ゆう) (hōyūほういう (fouiu)?
(alternative reading hiragana ぼうゆう, rōmaji bōyū, historical hiragana ぼういう)

  1. (uncommon) a friend
    Synonyms: 友達 (tomodachi), 仲間 (nakama), 友人 (yūjin) (more common)
    Antonym: 仇敵 (kyūteki)
Derived terms
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Proverbs
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
ぽん
Jinmeiyō
ゆう
Grade: 2
irregular
Alternative spellings
ポンユー
ポン友

Borrowing from Mandarin 朋友 (péngyǒu).[1][2]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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朋友(ポンユー) (pon'yū

  1. (slang, dated) a friend

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Vietnamese

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chữ Hán Nôm in this term

Noun

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朋友

  1. chữ Hán form of bằng hữu (friend).