朋友

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Chinese[edit]

friend friend
simp. and trad.
(朋友)
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Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (3) (35)
Final () (129) (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bəŋ/ /ɦɨuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bəŋ/ /ɦiuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/bəŋ/ /ɣiəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bəŋ/ /ɦuwX/
Li
Rong
/bəŋ/ /ɣiuX/
Wang
Li
/bəŋ/ /ɣĭəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱəŋ/ /i̯ə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
péng yǒu
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
péng yǒu
Middle
Chinese
‹ bong › ‹ hjuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]ˁəŋ/ /*[ɢ]ʷəʔ/
English set of cowries; friend friend

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 9663 15596
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bɯːŋ/ /*ɢʷɯʔ/

Noun[edit]

朋友

  1. friend (Classifier: ; )
    童年朋友  ―  tóngnián de péngyǒu  ―  childhood friend
    結交朋友 / 结交朋友  ―  jiéjiāo xīn péngyǒu  ―  to make new friends
    世界可悲事情莫過於喜歡朋友 [MSC, trad.]
    世界可悲事情莫过于喜欢朋友 [MSC, simp.]
    Shìjiè shàng zuì kěbēi de shìqíng, mòguòyú nǐ xǐhuān tā, tā què zhǐ bǎ nǐ dāng péngyǒu. [Pinyin]
    The saddest thing in the world is liking someone but they only see you as a friend.
  2. (euphemistic) boyfriend or girlfriend; partner
Synonyms[edit]
  • (friend):
edit
  • 捧油 (pěngyóu) (slang)
  • 捧由 (pěngyóu) (slang)
  • 盆友 (pényǒu) (neologism, Internet slang, humorous, cute-sounding)
  • 相與相与 (xiāngyǔ) (literary)
Antonyms[edit]
Hyponyms[edit]
  • (friend): 好友 (hǎoyǒu, “good friend”), 老友 (lǎoyǒu, “old friend”)
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Noun[edit]

朋友

  1. (archaic) large number of retainers
  2. (archaic, Ming dynasty) designation given by government bureaucrats to Confucian students
Synonyms[edit]
  • (large number of retainers): (archaic) 群臣 (qúnchén)

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (朋友):

Others:


Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ほう
Jinmeiyō
ゆう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

/hoː iu//hoːjiu//hoːjuː/

From Middle Chinese compound 朋友 (MC bəŋ ɦɨuX).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

朋友(ほうゆう) (hōyū (historical kana ほういう)
(alternative reading hiragana ぼうゆう, rōmaji bōyū, historical hiragana ぼういう)

  1. (uncommon) a friend
    Synonyms: 友達 (tomodachi), 仲間 (nakama), 友人 (yūjin) (more common)
    Antonym: 仇敵 (kyūteki)
Derived terms[edit]
Proverbs[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぽん
Jinmeiyō
ゆう
Grade: 2
Irregular

Borrowing from Mandarin 朋友 (péngyǒu).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Noun[edit]

朋友(ポンユー) (pon'yū

  1. (rare) a friend

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this term

Noun[edit]

朋友

  1. Hán tự form of bằng hữu (friend).