下さる

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Japanese

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Kanji in this term
くだ
Grade: 1

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [kɯ̟da̠sa̠ɾɯ̟]
  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "くださる"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
くださる ださ [kùdásáꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) くだされ ださ [kùdásáꜜrè]
Key constructions
Passive くだされる だされ [kùdásáréꜜrù]
Causative くださせる ださせ [kùdásáséꜜrù]
Potential - - -
Volitional くださろう ださろ [kùdásáróꜜò]
Negative くださらない ださらない [kùdásáráꜜnàì]
Negative perfective くださらなかった ださらなかった [kùdásáráꜜnàkàttà]
Formal くださいます ださいま [kùdásáímáꜜsù]
Perfective くださった ださった [kùdásáꜜttà]
Conjunctive くださって ださって [kùdásáꜜttè]
Hypothetical conditional くだされば だされば [kùdásáꜜrèbà]

Etymology 1

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From classical (くだ)さる (kudasaru), by a shift in the conjugation from ichidan to godan.

Verb

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(くだ)さる (kudasarugodan (stem (くだ)さり (kudasari) or (くだ)さい (kudasai), past (くだ)さった (kudasatta))

  1. (honorific) to give
    先生(せんせい)(わたし)(ほん)(くだ)さいました
    Sensei wa watashi ni hon o kudasaimashita.
    [My] teacher gave me a book.
  2. (honorific) to do something for me/us
Usage notes
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  • The receiver is always the speaker or someone close to the speaker such as a family member. The giver is always someone of higher social status than the speaker.
Conjugation
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Synonyms
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Etymology 2

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Derived as the passive / potential / spontaneous / honorific conjugation of 下す (kudasu, to lower something).

Verb

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(くだ)さる (kudasarunidan

  1. (honorific) to give
  2. (honorific) to do something for me/us
Conjugation
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