聞く

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
聴く
訊く

Etymology[edit]

From Old Japanese. First appears in the Kojiki of 712 CE in its 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis form), spelled in phonetic man'yōgana as 岐加受 (kikazu).[1][2] Ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kiku.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "聞く"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
聞く [kìkú]
Imperative (命令形) 聞け [kìké]
Key constructions
Passive 聞かれる かれる [kìkárérú]
Causative 聞かせる かせる [kìkásérú]
Potential 聞ける ける [kìkérú]
Volitional 聞こう [kìkóꜜò]
Negative 聞かない かない [kìkánáí]
Negative perfective 聞かなかった かなかった [kìkánáꜜkàttà]
Formal 聞きます きま [kìkímáꜜsù]
Perfective 聞いた いた [kìítá]
Conjunctive 聞いて いて [kìíté]
Hypothetical conditional 聞けば [kìkéꜜbà]

Verb[edit]

() (kikutransitive godan (stem () (kiki), past ()いた (kiita))

Japanese verb pair
active 聞く
mediopassive 聞こえる
  1. 聞く, 聴く:[note 1] to hear, to listen
    よく()セミ()(ごえ)()こえる
    Yoku kiku to semi no nakigoe ga kikoeru.
    If you listen closely, you can hear the cicadas.
    そんな()いたことない
    Sonna no kīta koto nai zo.
    Never heard of such a thing, dude.
  2. 聞く: to obey
    ()こと()かない
    iu koto o kikanai
    to be disobedient
    (literally, “to not listen to what is said”)
  3. 聞く, 訊く: to ask a question
    (かあ)さんに()いたらだめって
    Okāsan ni kiitara, dame da tte.
    When I asked my mom, she said no.
    (みち)(まよ)った(かれ)(わたし)()いた
    Michi ni mayotta kare wa, watashi ni kiita.
    Since he was lost he asked me the way.
  4. 聞く: to smell, sniff
    (こう)()
    kō o kiku
    to smell the incense
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 132:
      Cǒ. カゥ (香) 沈香. Cǒuo taqu. (香を炷く) 芳香を放ち薫るように沈香を焚く. Cǒuo tomuru. (香をとむる) 沈香を薫らせる, または, 着物に薫りをつける. Cǒuo qiqu. (香を聞く) 香炉で焚く沈香や加羅などの香を嗅いで, その香の品質を見る, すなわち, 鑑定する.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Usage notes[edit]

  1. ^ usually refers specifically to enjoyment of music.

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 聞・聴”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^
    711–712, Kojiki, (poem 72):
    , text here
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN