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U+8FD1, 近
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8FD1

[U+8FD0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8FD2]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 162 +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 卜竹一中 (YHML), four-corner 32302, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1254, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38752
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1736, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3819, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+8FD1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𣥍

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
近-seal.svg 近-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡɯ, *kɯl, *ɡɯn
*ɡɯl
*ɡɯl
*ɡɯl
*ɡɯl, *ŋɡɯːn, *ŋɡɯn
*ɡɯl, *ɡɯːls
*ɡɯl
*ɡɯl
*ŋɡɯl
*qʰan
*ŋɡrɯnʔ, *ŋkɯn
*ŋɡrɯnʔ, *ŋɡɯn
*ŋɡrɯnʔ, *ŋɡɯnʔ
*ŋrɯns, *qɯns
*kɯn, *kɯns
*kɯnʔ
*kɯns
*kɯns
*kɯns, *keŋs
*kʰɯnʔ
*ɡɯn
*ɡɯnʔ, *ɡɯns
*ŋɡɯn
*qʰɯn
*qʰɯn
*qʰɯn
*qʰɯn
*qʰɯn, *qʰɯns
*qʰɯn
*qʰɯns, *mpreːɡs
*qʰɯns

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kan5 - vernacular;
  • gan6 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕin⁵¹/
    Harbin /t͡ɕin⁵³/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕin⁵³/
    Jinan /t͡ɕiẽ²¹/
    Qingdao /t͡ɕiə̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡ɕin³¹²/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕiẽ⁴⁴/
    Xining /t͡ɕiə̃²¹³/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕiŋ¹³/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕĩn¹³/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕiŋ²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕin³⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕin¹³/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕin²¹³/
    Kunming /t͡ɕĩ¹/
    Nanjing /t͡ɕin⁴⁴/
    Hefei /t͡ɕin⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiəŋ⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕiŋ³⁵/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕĩŋ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /d͡ʑin³¹/
    Hangzhou /d͡ʑin¹³/
    Wenzhou /d͡ʑaŋ³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰiʌ̃³⁵/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕʰin²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    /t͡ɕin¹¹/
    Xiangtan /d͡ʑin²¹/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰin²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /kʰiun⁴⁴/ 好~
    /kʰiun⁵³/ ~來
    Taoyuan /kʰuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐn²²/
    Nanning /kʰɐn²⁴/
    /kɐn²²/
    Hong Kong /kɐn²²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kun²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /køyŋ²⁴²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kyiŋ⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kɯŋ³⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kin³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (30) (30)
    Final () (57) (57)
    Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () III III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɡɨnX/ /ɡɨnH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɡɨnX/ /ɡɨnH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɡiənX/ /ɡiənH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /gɨnX/ /gɨnH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɡiənX/ /ɡiənH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɡĭənX/ /ɡĭənH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /gi̯ənX/ /gi̯ənH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jìn jìn
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jìn jìn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ gjɨnX › ‹ gjɨnH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*N-kərʔ/ /*s-N-kərʔ-s/
    English near be near to (v.t.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 6659 6660
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡɯnʔ/ /*ɡɯns/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. near, close
      Antonyms: (yuǎn)
    2. intimate
    3. approximately
    4. to approach
    5. (dialectal) to make a profit; to earn

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. near, close

    Readings[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana こん, rōmaji Kon)

    1. A surname​.

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (geun) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer kŭn, Yale kun)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (cận, cặn, gàn, gần)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.