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U+8FD1, 近
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8FD1

[U+8FD0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8FD2]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
近-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 162 +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 卜竹一中 (YHML), four-corner 32302, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1254, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38752
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1736, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3819, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+8FD1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
近-bigseal.svg 近-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡɯ, *kɯl, *ɡɯn
*ɡɯl
*ɡɯl
*ɡɯl
*ɡɯl, *ŋɡɯːn, *ŋɡɯn
*ɡɯl, *ɡɯːls
*ɡɯl
*ɡɯl
*ŋɡɯl
*qʰan
*ŋɡrɯnʔ, *ŋkɯn
*ŋɡrɯnʔ, *ŋɡɯn
*ŋɡrɯnʔ, *ŋɡɯnʔ
*ŋrɯns, *qɯns
*kɯn, *kɯns
*kɯnʔ
*kɯns
*kɯns
*kɯns, *keŋs
*kʰɯnʔ
*ɡɯn
*ɡɯnʔ, *ɡɯns
*ŋɡɯn
*qʰɯn
*qʰɯn
*qʰɯn
*qʰɯn
*qʰɯn, *qʰɯns
*qʰɯn
*qʰɯns, *mpreːɡs
*qʰɯns

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kan5 - vernacular;
  • gan6 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕin⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕin⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕin⁵³/
Jinan /t͡ɕiẽ²¹/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕin³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiẽ⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕiə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕiŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕiŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕin³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕin¹³/
Guiyang /t͡ɕin²¹³/
Kunming /t͡ɕĩ¹/
Nanjing /t͡ɕin⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡ɕin⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡ɕĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /d͡ʑin³¹/
Hangzhou /d͡ʑin¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡ʑaŋ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰiʌ̃³⁵/
Tunxi /t͡ɕʰin²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
/t͡ɕin¹¹/
Xiangtan /d͡ʑin²¹/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰin²¹/
Hakka Meixian /kʰiun⁴⁴/ 好~
/kʰiun⁵³/ ~來
Taoyuan /kʰuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐn²²/
Nanning /kʰɐn²⁴/
/kɐn²²/
Hong Kong /kɐn²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kun²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /køyŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kyiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kɯŋ³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kin³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (30) (30)
Final () (57) (57)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡɨnX/ /ɡɨnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡɨnX/ /ɡɨnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiənX/ /ɡiənH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/gɨnX/ /gɨnH/
Li
Rong
/ɡiənX/ /ɡiənH/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭənX/ /ɡĭənH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯ənX/ /gi̯ənH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jìn jìn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jìn jìn
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjɨnX › ‹ gjɨnH ›
Old
Chinese
/*N-kərʔ/ /*s-N-kərʔ-s/
English near be near to (v.t.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 6659 6660
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡɯnʔ/ /*ɡɯns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. near, close
    Antonyms: (yuǎn)
  2. intimate
  3. approximately
  4. to approach
  5. (dialectal) to make a profit; to earn

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. nearby, close

Readings[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana こん, romaji Kon)

  1. A surname​.

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(geun) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer kŭn, Yale kun)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cận, cặn, gàn, gần)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.