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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *reːls, *rel, *rels): semantic  ‎(bird) + phonetic  ‎(OC *rel, *r̥ʰel) – birds flying away (departing).

Han character[edit]

(radical 172 +11, 19 strokes, cangjie input 卜月人土 (YBOG), four-corner 00414, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1369, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42140
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1875, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4106, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+96E2

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /li³⁵/
Harbin /li²⁴/
Tianjin /li⁴⁵/
Jinan /li⁴²/
Qingdao /li⁴²/
Zhengzhou /li⁴²/ ~婚
/li³¹²/ ~開
Xi'an /li²⁴/ ~別
/li⁴⁴/ ~開
Xining /l̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /li⁵³/
Lanzhou /li⁵³/
Ürümqi /li⁵¹/
Wuhan /ni²¹³/
Chengdu /ni³¹/
Guiyang /ni²¹/
Kunming /li³¹/
Nanjing /li²⁴/
/li⁴⁴/
Hefei /zz̩⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /li¹¹/
Pingyao /li¹³/ ~別
/li³⁵/ 分開了
Hohhot /li³¹/
Wu Shanghai /li¹³/
Suzhou /li¹³/
Hangzhou /li¹³/
Wenzhou /lei³¹/
Hui Shexian /li⁴⁴/
Tunxi /li⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /li¹³/
Xiangtan /ni¹²/
Gan Nanchang /li⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /li¹¹/
Taoyuan /li¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /lei²¹/
Nanning /li²¹/
Hong Kong /lei²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /li³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /lie⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /li⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /li⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /li³¹/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (37)
Final: (11)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: lí
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/liᴇ/ /liɛ/ /ljɛ/ /liə̆/ /lie/ /lǐe/ /lie̯/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (37)
Final: (11)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: lì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/liᴇH/ /liɛH/ /ljɛH/ /liə̆H/ /lieH/ /lǐeH/ /lie̯H/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (37)
Final: (39)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: IV
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: lì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/leiH/ /leiH/ /lɛiH/ /lɛjH/ /leiH/ /lieiH/ /lieiH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ lje › /*[r]aj/ meet with, encounter
‹ lje › /*[r]aj/ depart from
‹ ljeH › /*raj-s/ reject

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
7779 2 /*reːls/
7780 2 /*rel/
7794 2 /*rels/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to leave, depart
  2. to go away
  3. to separate
  4. away from
  5. 3rd of the 8 trigrams
  6. 30th hexagram of the I Ching

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

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Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ri, i) (hangeul , , revised ri, i, McCune-Reischauer ri, i, Yale li, i)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ly, li, le, , , lìa, lia)

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