Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
U+67D3, 染
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-67D3

[U+67D2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+67D4]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 水弓木 (END), four-corner 34904, composition氿(GJKV) or ⿱氿𣎳(HT))

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 519, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14621
  • Dae Jaweon: page 907, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1188, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+67D3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
染-seal.svg 染-bigseal.svg



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (water) + (hook) + (tree) – to hang (on a hook 九) from a tree (木) into water (氵), so as to dye.

Earlier forms more often graphically + ; water radical moved up.

Etymology[edit]

Coblin (1986) compares this to Tibetan ཉམས་པ (nyams pa, be stained, tarnished, spoiled); Pan (1987) also notes Proto-Tai *ɲuɔmᴬ as well as Vietnamese nhuộm, both meaning "to dye".

Schuessler (2007) cites Downer (1986)'s opinion that form with (shàng) tone is the verb, while form with () tone is the noun meaning "kind of cloth" (Lǐjì).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • liám/jiám - literary;
  • ní - vernacular.
Note:
  • riam2 - literary;
  • ni2 - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐan²¹⁴/
Harbin /ʐan²¹³/
Tianjin /ian¹³/
/ʐan¹³/
Jinan /ʐã⁵⁵/
Qingdao /iã⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ʐan⁵³/
Xi'an /ʐã⁵³/
Xining /ʐã⁵³/
Yinchuan /ʐan⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ʐan⁵¹/
Wuhan /nan⁴²/
Chengdu /zan⁵³/
Guiyang /zan⁴²/
Kunming /ʐã̠⁵³/
Nanjing /ʐaŋ²¹²/
Hefei /ʐæ̃²⁴/
/ʐən²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /zæ̃⁵³/
Pingyao /ʐɑŋ⁵³/
Hohhot /ʐæ̃⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
/zø²³/
Suzhou /ȵiɪ³¹/
Hangzhou /zz̩ʷõ¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ne³⁵/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /yẽ⁴¹/
Xiangtan /iẽ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ŋiam⁵³/
Taoyuan /ŋiɑm⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jim²³/
Nanning /jim²⁴/
Hong Kong /jim¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liam⁵³/
/ni⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nieŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ziam⁵³/
/nĩ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zam²¹³/
/ni²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (38) (38)
Final () (153) (153)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiᴇmX/ /ȵiᴇmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɛmX/ /ȵiɛmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjæmX/ /ȵʑjæmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵiamX/ /ȵiamH/
Li
Rong
/ȵiɛmX/ /ȵiɛmH/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭɛmX/ /ȵʑĭɛmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ɛmX/ /ȵʑi̯ɛmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rǎn ràn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jim5 jim6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rǎn
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyemX ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.n[a]mʔ/
English to dye

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 10790 10791
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njomʔ/ /*njoms/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to dye
  2. be contagious
  3. to infect

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. dye, color, paint, stain, print

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiᴇmX, ȵiᴇmH).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [jʌ̹(ː)m]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 물들일 (muldeuril yeom))

  1. Hanja form? of (dye).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: nhuộm, nhẹm, nhiễm, nhuốm, ruộm, vẩn

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.