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Translingual[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(water) +  ‎(hook) +  ‎(tree) – to hang (on a hook 九) from a tree (木) into water (氵), so as to dye.

Earlier forms more often graphically  + ; water radical moved up.

Han character[edit]

(radical 75 +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 水弓木 (END), four-corner 34904, composition氿)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 519, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14621
  • Dae Jaweon: page 907, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1188, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+67D3

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (染), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 日 (38)
Final: 鹽
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 而琰切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵiᴇmX/ /ȵʑi̯ɛmX/ /ȵiɛmX/ /ȵiɛmX/ /ȵiamX/ /ȵʑĭɛmX/ /ȵʑjæmX/
Character (染), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 日 (38)
Final: 鹽
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 而豔切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵiᴇmH/ /ȵʑi̯ɛmH/ /ȵiɛmH/ /ȵiɛmH/ /ȵiamH/ /ȵʑĭɛmH/ /ȵʑjæmH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
rǎn ‹ nyemX › /*C.n[a]mʔ/ to dye

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
10790 3 /*njomʔ/
10791 3 /*njoms/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to dye
  2. be contagious
  3. to infect

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yeom) (hangeul , revised yeom, McCune-Reischauer yŏm, Yale yem)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhuộm, nhẹm, nhiễm, nhuốm, ruộm, vẩn)

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