染 (Kangxi radical 75, 木+5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 水弓木 (END), four-corner 34904, composition ⿱氿木(GJKV) or ⿱氿𣎳(HT))
- KangXi: page 519, character 4
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14621
- Dae Jaweon: page 907, character 3
- Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1188, character 7
- Unihan data for U+67D3
|Historical forms of the character 染
|Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
||Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
|Small seal script
||Transcribed ancient scripts
Transcribed ancient scripts
Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:
- Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
- Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
- Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
- Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Ideogrammic compound (會意): 氵 (“water”) + 九 (“hook”) + 木 (“tree”) – to hang (on a hook 九) from a tree (木) into water (氵), so as to dye.
Earlier forms more often graphically 氵 + 杂; in the modern form, the water radical is moved upward to the upper-left corner.
Coblin (1986) compares this to Tibetan ཉམས་པ (nyams pa, “be stained, tarnished, spoiled”); Pan (1987) also notes Proto-Tai *ɲuɔmᴬ as well as Vietnamese nhuộm, both meaning "to dye".
Schuessler (2007) cites Downer (1986)'s opinion that form with 上 (shàng) tone is the verb, while form with 去 (qù) tone is the noun meaning "kind of cloth" (Lǐjì).
- to dye
- 把頭髮染成棕色／把头发染成棕色 ― bǎ tóufà rǎn chéng zōngsè ― to dye one's hair brown
- to catch (a disease); to fall into (a bad habit)
- 染上破傷風／染上破伤风 ― rǎn shàng pòshāngfēng ― to get tetanus
- a surname: Ran
(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)
- dye, color, paint, stain, print
- Go-on: ねん (nen)←ねん (nen, historical)←ねむ (nemu, ancient)
- Kan-on: ぜん (zen)←ぜん (zen, historical)←ぜむ (zemu, ancient)
- Kan’yō-on: せん (sen, Jōyō)←せん (sen, historical)←せむ (semu, ancient)
- Kun: しみ (shimi, 染み, Jōyō); そめる (someru, 染める, Jōyō); しみる (shimiru, 染みる, Jōyō); そまる (somaru, 染まる, Jōyō)
From Middle Chinese 染 (MC nyemX|nyemH).
- (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [jɘ(ː)m]
- Phonetic hangul: [염(ː)]
- Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.
染 (eumhun 물들일 염 (muldeuril yeom))
- Hanja form? of 염 (“dye”).
- 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전／電子字典. 
染: Hán Nôm readings: nhuộm, nhẹm, nhiễm, nhuốm, ruộm, vẩn
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