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U+67D4, 柔
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-67D4

[U+67D3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+67D5]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹木 (NHD), four-corner 17904, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 519, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14622
  • Dae Jaweon: page 907, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1192, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+67D4

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *mlju): phonetic  (OC *mu) + semantic  (tree) – wood soft enough that it can easily be cut.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐou³⁵/
Harbin /ʐou²⁴/
Tianjin /iou⁴⁵/
/ʐou⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʐou⁴²/
Qingdao /iou⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐou⁴²/
Xi'an /ʐou²⁴/
Xining /ʐɯ²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəu⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐou⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤu⁵¹/
Wuhan /nəu²¹³/
Chengdu /zəu³¹/
Guiyang /zəu²¹/
Kunming /ʐəu³¹/
Nanjing /ʐəɯ²⁴/
Hefei /ʐɯ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zəu¹¹/
Pingyao /ʐəu¹³/
Hohhot /ʐəu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zɤ²³/
Suzhou /zɤ¹³/
Hangzhou /zei²¹³/
Wenzhou /jɤu³¹/
Hui Shexian /iu⁴⁴/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /iəu¹³/
Xiangtan /iəɯ¹²/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /iu¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒiu¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐu²¹/
Nanning /jɐu²¹/
Hong Kong /jɐu²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liu³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ieu⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zĩu⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ziu²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑiəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵuw/
Li
Rong
/ȵiu/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
róu
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
róu
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*nu/
English soft

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8825
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mlju/

Definitions[edit]

  1. soft; supple
  2. to soften
  3. gentle; pliant
  4. to make gentle
  5. () Short for 柔佛 (Róufó, “Johor”).

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (じゅう) ()
  • Korean: (, yu)
  • Vietnamese: nhu ()

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
じゅう
Grade: S
kan’on

/d͡ʑɨu//d͡ʑuː//ʑuː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ȵɨu).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(じゅう) ( (historical kana じう)

  1. gentle, soft, supple
  2. calm, gentle, mild, peaceful
  3. calm, relieve, soften
  4. martial art involving gentleness, such as jujitsu or judo
Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(じゅう) ( (historical kana じう)

  1. gentleness, softness, suppleness; also, such an object
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
にゅう
Grade: S
goon

/nɨu//ɲuː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ȵɨu).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(にう) (niu (historical kana にう)

  1. gentle, supple, weak
  2. kindhearted
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
やわ
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

/jaɸa//jawa/

Possibly a back-formation of 柔柔 (yawayawa, soft, supple).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjectival noun[edit]

(やわ) (yawa-na (adnominal (やわ) (yawa na), adverbial (やわ) (yawa ni), historical kana やは)

  1. weak
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
やわ(ら)
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
やわ
[adjectival noun] something fragile, soft, or supple
[adjectival noun] something calm or gentle
[noun] a martial art involving gentleness, such as judo or jujitsu
[noun] (nautical) a kind of straw ball dropped near the boat's side, used to reduce impact
Alternative spellings
和ら, 軟ら
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(yu) (hangeul , revised yu, McCune–Reischauer yu, Yale yu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.