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U+9AA8, 骨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9AA8

[U+9AA7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9AA9]
U+2FBB, ⾻
KANGXI RADICAL BONE

[U+2FBA]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FBC]
U+2EE3, ⻣
CJK RADICAL BONE

[U+2EE2]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2EE4]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
(Mainland China)
Stroke order
(Taiwan)
Stroke order
(Japan)

Alternative forms[edit]

  • In Traditional Chinese (Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), Japanese kanji and Korean hanja, the inner component on the top of the character is positioned to the right () (), which is the orthodox form found in the historical Kangxi dictionary.
  • In mainland China (based on Xin Zixing (新字形) standardized form) and Vietnamese Nôm, the inner component on the top of the character is positioned to the left () ().
  • In mainland China (Xin Zixing), Hong Kong and Macau (Traditional Chinese), Japanese kanji, Korean hanja and Vietnamese Nôm, the bottom component is written in the form of (similar to but the leftmost stroke is vertical and not curved 丿), which is the orthodox form found in the Kangxi dictionary.
  • In Taiwan (Traditional Chinese), the bottom component is written in the form of (meat radical, similar to where the leftmost stroke is curved 丿 but the two horizontal strokes enclosed within are written instead).
  • Due to Han unification, this character may or may not appear different, depending on the fonts available:
    • Taiwan: ; Mainland China: ; Japan, Korea, Hong Kong and Macau: .

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 188, +0, 10 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 9 strokes in mainland China, cangjie input 月月月 (BBB), four-corner 77227, composition ⿱⿵⿰𠃍𠃍(GV) or ⿱⿵⿰𠃍⿰丨(HTJK))

  1. Kangxi radical #188, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №134

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1447, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1973, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4406, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9AA8

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (skull) + (body).

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. #

Usually related to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s/m/g-rus (bone), whence Tibetan རུས (rus), Nuosu (vup ddu), S'gaw Karen တၢ်ဃံ (ta̱xee), but there is no trace of a medial *r in Chinese (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • gǔ - usual pronunciation;
  • gū - used in some colloquial words, such as 骨朵兒 (“unbloomed flower”) and 骨碌 (“to roll”);
  • gú - used in some colloquial words, such as 骨頭 (“bone”).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ku²¹⁴/
/ku³⁵/
Harbin /ku²¹³/
Tianjin /ku¹³/ ~折
/ku²¹/ ~頭
Jinan /ku²¹³/
Qingdao /ku⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ku²⁴/
Xi'an /ku²¹/
Xining /kv̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ku¹³/
Lanzhou /ku¹³/
Ürümqi /ku²¹³/
Wuhan /ku²¹³/
Chengdu /ku³¹/
Guiyang /ku²¹/
Kunming /ku³¹/
Nanjing /kuʔ⁵/
Hefei /kuəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /kuəʔ²/
Pingyao /kuʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /kuəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /kuəʔ⁵/
Suzhou /kuəʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /kuoʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /ky²¹³/
Hui Shexian /kuʔ²¹/
Tunxi /ku⁵/
Xiang Changsha /ku²⁴/
Xiangtan /ku²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /kuɨʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /kut̚¹/
Taoyuan /kut̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɐt̚⁵/
Nanning /kɛɐt̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kwɐt̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kut̚³²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /kɔuʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ko²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /kuk̚²/
Haikou (Hainanese) /kut̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (56)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter kwot
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuət̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuot̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuət̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwət̚/
Li
Rong
/kuət̚/
Wang
Li
/kuət̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuət̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gwat1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwot ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁut/
English bone

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4321
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kuːd/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. (anatomy) bone
  2. (anatomy) skeleton
  3. (figurative) frame; framework
  4. (figurative) moral character
  5. (Cantonese) sarcasm
    說話 [Cantonese, trad.]
    说话 [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 geoi3 geoi3 syut3 waa6 dou1 jau5 gwat1 [Jyutping]
    All his sentences are sarcastic.
  6. a surname: Gu
Synonyms[edit]
  • (moral character):

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

From English quarter.

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Cantonese) quarter of an hour; 15 minutes (Classifier: c)
    [Cantonese]  ―  saam1 dim2 jat1 go3 gwat1 [Jyutping]  ―  quarter past three
    [Cantonese]  ―  ng5 dim2 saam1 go3 gwat1 [Jyutping]  ―  quarter to six (literally three quarters past five)
  2. (Cantonese) one fourth; a quarter

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. skeleton
  2. bone

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(hone): a bone.
Kanji in this term
ほね
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

/pone//ɸone//hone/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pənay.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ほね) (hone

  1. bone

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
かわら
Grade: 6
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(rare)

/kapara//kaɸara//kawara/

Probably from Sanskrit कपाल (kapāla, cup, bowl, skull). Cognate with (kawara, tile, particularly for roofing or flooring).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かわら) (kawaraかはら (kafara)?

  1. (archaic, rare) a bone, particularly a covering bone such as a skull or kneecap

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
こつ
Grade: 6
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC kwot, “bone”).

The knack sense comes from the idea of the bones as the innermost core or essence of something.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(こつ) (kotsu

  1. remains, ashes
  2. knack, trick
    ネイルコツ
    neiru no kotsu
    tricks and tips for doing one's nails
Alternative forms[edit]
  • (knack, trick): コツ (kotsu)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC kwot).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 고ᇙ〮 (Yale: kwólq)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] ᄲᅧ〮 (Yale: spyé) 골〮 (Yale: kwól)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (ppyeo gol))

  1. Hanja form? of (bone).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Ryukyuan *pone, from earlier Proto-Japonic *pənay. Cognate with Japanese (hone, bone).

Noun[edit]

(ふに) (funi

  1. bone
  2. frame (of a sliding paper door, etc)
  3. stem, stalk

Etymology 2[edit]

Ultimately from Middle Chinese (MC kwot, “bone”).

Noun[edit]

(くち) or (くし) (kuchi or kushi

  1. remains, ashes

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: cốt[1][2][3][4][5][6]
: Nôm readings: cốt[1][2][3], cót[1][3], cút[1][3], cọt[3], gút[3]

  1. chữ Hán form of cốt (bone (compounds), extracted, condensed).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]