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U+74E6, 瓦
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-74E6

[U+74E5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+74E7]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
瓦-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 98 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一女弓戈 (MVNI), four-corner 10717)

  1. Kangxi radical #98, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 747, character 36
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21438
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1156, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1421, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+74E6

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𪜂

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
瓦-silk.svg 瓦-seal.svg 瓦-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋʷraːlʔ, *ŋʷraːls
*ŋʷraːlʔ

Pictogram (象形) – fired earthenware pottery, or a tile.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • nguâ - colloquial (“tile”);
  • nguā - literary (“watt”).
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hiā/huā/hiǎ/hǒa - vernacular;
    • góa - literary;
    • óa - literary (Zhangzhou, Taiwan), common variant (Xiamen, Quanzhou).
    Note:
    • hia6 - vernacular;
    • ua2 - literary;
    • uag6 - vernacular (“watt”);
    • ua1 - literary (“watt”).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ua²¹⁴/
    Harbin /ua²¹³/
    /ua⁵³/
    Tianjin /vɑ¹³/
    Jinan /va⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /va⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ua⁵³/
    Xi'an /ua⁵³/
    Xining /ua⁵³/
    Yinchuan /va⁵³/ ~房
    /va¹³/ ~刀
    Lanzhou /va⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /va⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ua⁴²/
    Chengdu /ua⁵³/
    Guiyang /ua⁴²/
    Kunming /ua̠⁵³/
    Nanjing /uɑ²¹²/
    Hefei /ua²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /va⁵³/ 磚~
    /va⁴⁵/ 泥~匠
    Pingyao /uɑ⁵³/ 名詞
    /uɑ³⁵/ 動詞
    Hohhot /va⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋo²³/
    Suzhou /ŋo³¹/
    Hangzhou /ʔuɑ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ŋo³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ua³⁵/
    /ŋa³⁵/
    Tunxi /ŋɔ²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ua⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /uɒ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /uɑ²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋa³¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋɑ³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋa²³/
    Nanning /ŋa²⁴/
    Hong Kong /ŋa¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gua⁵³/
    /hia²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ua³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ua⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ua⁵³/
    /hia³⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hia³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (99)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠuaX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷᵚaX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋuaX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋwaɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋuaX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋwaX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋwaX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngwæX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.ŋʷˤra[j]ʔ/
    English roof tile

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 12601
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋʷraːlʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. earthenware; earthenware pottery
    2. tile (roof covering)
    3. (historical) back of shield (arching, as if it is covered by tile)
    4. (historical) amusement park; market
    5. (historical, dialectal) protecting plate of wheel
    6. (music) Alternative name for (, “earth”).
    7. Ancient placename in modern Hua County, Henan.
    8. Short for 瓦特 (Wǎtè, “watt”).
    9. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (99)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠuaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋuaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋwaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋuaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋwaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋwaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 12603
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋʷraːls/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to tile; to cover with tiles

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. tile
    2. gram, gramme

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Tiled roof in Dubrovnik-edit.jpg
    Kanji in this term
    かわら
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /kapara//kaɸara//kawara/

    Probably from Sanskrit कपालः (kapāla, cup, bowl, skull),[1][2] possibly via 迦波羅 (MC kɨɑ|kˠa puɑ lɑ). Along with Buddhism, roof tiles came to Japan in the Asuka period.

    Cognate with , (kawara, a bone, particularly a covering bone such as a skull or kneecap).

    Folk etymologies include:

    • from 変わら (kawara), the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 変わる (kawaru, to change), from the idea that tiles were produced by changing the clay into pottery through firing

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かわら, rōmaji kawara, historical hiragana かはら)

    1. roof tile

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Abbreviation of transliterated ateji (当て字) spelling  () () () (guramu), attested in the Meiji period. The term グラム (guramu) itself was borrowed from either English gram or French gramme.[1][2]

    Once considered a 国字 (kokuji, national character, a kanji coined in Japan), another example being  (トン) (ton, ton, tonne).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (katakana グラム, rōmaji guramu)

    1. (dated) symbol for gram, gramme

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (wa) (hangeul , revised wa, McCune-Reischauer wa, Yale wa)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (ngõa, ngói, ngoa)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.