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U+74E6, 瓦
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-74E6

[U+74E5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+74E7]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
瓦-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 98 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一女弓戈 (MVNI), four-corner 10717)

  1. Kangxi radical #98, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 747, character 36
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21438
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1156, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1421, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+74E6

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𪜂

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
瓦-silk.svg 瓦-bigseal.svg 瓦-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋʷraːlʔ, *ŋʷraːls
*ŋʷraːlʔ

Pictogram (象形) – fired earthenware pottery, or a tile.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • nguâ - colloquial (“tile”);
  • nguā - literary (“watt”).
Note:
  • hiā/huā/hiǎ/hǒa - vernacular;
  • góa - literary;
  • óa - literary (Zhangzhou, Taiwan), common variant (Xiamen, Quanzhou).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ua²¹⁴/
Harbin /ua²¹³/
/ua⁵³/
Tianjin /vɑ¹³/
Jinan /va⁵⁵/
Qingdao /va⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ua⁵³/
Xi'an /ua⁵³/
Xining /ua⁵³/
Yinchuan /va⁵³/ ~房
/va¹³/ ~刀
Lanzhou /va⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /va⁵¹/
Wuhan /ua⁴²/
Chengdu /ua⁵³/
Guiyang /ua⁴²/
Kunming /ua̠⁵³/
Nanjing /uɑ²¹²/
Hefei /ua²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /va⁵³/ 磚~
/va⁴⁵/ 泥~匠
Pingyao /uɑ⁵³/ 名詞
/uɑ³⁵/ 動詞
Hohhot /va⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ŋo²³/
Suzhou /ŋo³¹/
Hangzhou /ʔuɑ⁵³/
Wenzhou /ŋo³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ua³⁵/
/ŋa³⁵/
Tunxi /ŋɔ²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ua⁴¹/
Xiangtan /uɒ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /uɑ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ŋa³¹/
Taoyuan /ŋɑ³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋa²³/
Nanning /ŋa²⁴/
Hong Kong /ŋa¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gua⁵³/
/hia²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ua³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ua⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ua⁵³/
/hia³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hia³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (31)
Final () (99)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠuaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋʷᵚaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋuaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋwaɨX/
Li
Rong
/ŋuaX/
Wang
Li
/ŋwaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋwaX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngwæX ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.ŋʷˤra[j]ʔ/
English roof tile

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 12601
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋʷraːlʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. earthenware; earthenware pottery
  2. tile (roof covering)
  3. (historical) back of shield (arching, as if it is covered by tile)
  4. (historical) amusement park; market
  5. (historical, dialectal) protecting plate of wheel
  6. (music) Alternative name for (, “earth”).
  7. Ancient placename in modern Hua County, Henan.
  8. Short for 瓦特 (Wǎtè, “watt”).
  9. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (31)
Final () (99)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠuaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋʷᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋuaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋwaɨH/
Li
Rong
/ŋuaH/
Wang
Li
/ŋwaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋwaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 12603
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋʷraːls/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to tile; to cover with tiles

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. tile
  2. gram, gramme

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Tiled roof in Dubrovnik-edit.jpg
Kanji in this term
かわら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/kapara//kaɸara//kawara/

Probably from Sanskrit कपालः (kapāla, cup, bowl, skull),[1][2] possibly via 迦波羅 (MC kɨɑ|kˠa puɑ lɑ). Along with Buddhism, roof tiles came to Japan in the Asuka period.

Cognate with , (kawara, a bone, particularly a covering bone such as a skull or kneecap).

Folk etymologies include:

  • from 変わら (kawara), the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 変わる (kawaru, to change), from the idea that tiles were produced by changing the clay into pottery through firing

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かわら, rōmaji kawara, historical hiragana かはら)

  1. roof tile

Etymology 2[edit]

Abbreviation of transliterated ateji (当て字) spelling  () () () (guramu), attested in the Meiji period. The term グラム (guramu) itself was borrowed from either English gram or French gramme.[1][2]

Once considered a 国字 (kokuji, national character, a kanji coined in Japan), another example being  (トン) (ton, ton, tonne).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Noun[edit]

(katakana グラム, rōmaji guramu)

  1. (dated) symbol for gram, gramme

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(wa) (hangeul , revised wa, McCune-Reischauer wa, Yale wa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ngõa, ngói, ngoa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.