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U+5BE1, 寡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BE1

[U+5BE0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BE2]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 40, +11, 14 strokes, cangjie input 十一金竹 (JMCH), four-corner 30227, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 290, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7286
  • Dae Jaweon: page 574, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 947, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5BE1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𠆣

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
寡-bronze.svg 寡-bronze-spring.svg 寡-bronze-warring.svg 寡-silk.svg 寡-slip.svg 寡-seal.svg

In the bronze script from the Western Zhou period, it was originally an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (house) +  (head) — only one person in the house; alone.

In the bronze script from the Warring States period, two decorative strokes were added around . The seal script found in Shuowen adds two additional strokes, making the component under appear as and , leading Shuowen to erroneously interpret the character as an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (house) +  (to distribute).

Etymology[edit]

Related to (OC *kruːn, *kruːns, “widower”), (OC *kʷaː, “orphan; alone”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • 2ko - vernacular;
  • 2kua - literary.
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (99)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠuaX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʷᵚaX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuaX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwaɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuaX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kwaX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kwaX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guǎ
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guǎ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwæX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[C.k]ʷˁraʔ/
    English few

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4400
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʷraːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. few; scant
    2. widowed
    3. widow
    4. alone; friendless
    5. tasteless
      淨係好似 [Cantonese, trad.]
      净系好似 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Zing6 hai6 sik6 coi3 hou2 ci5 gwaa2 zo2 di1 wo3. [Jyutping]
      It's kind of tasteless to eat vegetables only.
    6. (Hokkien) some
      菜市仔青菜 [Taiwanese, trad.]
      菜市仔青菜 [Taiwanese, simp.]
      Góa khì chhài-chhī-á bé kóa chheⁿ-chhài. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
      I'm going to the market to buy some vegetables.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 寡婦 (“widow”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 寡婦, 寡妻, , 嫠婦, , 孀妻, 孀婦, 遺孀, 孤孀, 孤嫠, 寡嫠
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 寡婦, 孤孀
    Mandarin Beijing 寡婦, 半邊人兒, 半邊人
    Taiwan 寡婦
    Harbin 寡婦
    Hailar 寡婦
    Ulanhot 寡婦
    Tongliao 寡婦
    Chifeng 寡婦
    Bayanhot 寡婦
    Jinan 寡婦
    Muping 寡婦兒
    Luoyang 寡婦
    Wanrong 寡婦
    Xi'an 寡婦
    Xining 寡婦
    Yinchuan 寡婦
    Lanzhou 寡婦
    Ürümqi 寡婦
    Wuhan 寡婦
    Chengdu 寡母子, 寡母兒, 寡婦
    Guiyang 寡婆, 寡婦
    Liuzhou 寡母婆, 寡婦婆, 寡婦
    Yangzhou 半邊人, 寡婦
    Nanjing 寡婦
    Hefei 寡婦
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 女寡婦
    Masanchin (Shaanxi Dungan) 女寡婦
    Cantonese Guangzhou 寡母婆, 寡婆
    Hong Kong 寡母婆
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 寡婦婆
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok) 守寡婆
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau) 守寡婆
    Taishan 寡婆
    Dongguan 守寡婆
    Yangjiang 寡婦婆
    Xinyi 寡母婆
    Hepu 寡母婆
    Kuala Lumpur 寡母婆
    Ho Chi Minh City 寡婦
    Gan Nanchang 寡婦, 半邊人
    Lichuan 寡婦
    Pingxiang 寡婦, 寡婦婆
    Hakka Meixian 寡婦
    Yudu 寡婦婆
    Hong Kong 守寡婆
    Sabah (Longchuan) 寡婦婆
    Senai 守寡婆
    Huizhou Jixi 寡婦, 寡婦老嫗
    Jin Taiyuan 寡婦
    Xinzhou 寡婦, 守寡哩
    Baochang 寡婦
    Jining 寡婦
    Hohhot 寡婦
    Baotou 寡婦
    Dongsheng 寡婦
    Linhe 寡婦
    Haibowan 寡婦
    Min Bei Jian'ou 守寡嫲
    Min Dong Fuzhou 孀居儂, 孀居
    Min Nan Xiamen 守寡儂, 守寡的, 守寡查某
    Quanzhou 守寡儂
    Zhangzhou 守寡儂
    Chaozhou 守寡個
    Shantou 寡婦
    Thailand (Bangkok) 寡婦
    Johor Bahru 寡婦
    Wenchang 守節
    Haikou 死老公個
    Zhongshan Min Sanxiang 寡婆
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) 寡母婆
    Wu Shanghai 孤孀, 寡婦
    Suzhou 孤孀
    Wuxi 寡婦
    Hangzhou 寡婦
    Wenzhou 守寡老人兒, 守寡老安人, 單邊人
    Chongming 寡婦, 單邊人
    Danyang 寡婦
    Jinhua 寡婦
    Ningbo 孤孀老𡢿, 孤孀
    Xiang Changsha 寡婦
    Shuangfeng 單身寡婦, 寡婦
    Loudi 寡婦
    Dialectal synonyms of (“some, a few”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Hakka Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Philippines (Manila)
    Wu Wenzhou 厘兒

    Compounds[edit]

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kan’on

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ka)

    1. minority
       () ()って (しゅう) (せい)する
      ka o motte shū o seisuru
      Majority can be conquered by minority.
    Antonyms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    やもめ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やもめ, rōmaji yamome)

    1. widow
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gwa) (hangeul , revised gwa, McCune–Reischauer kwa)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (quả, goá)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.