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U+515C, 兜
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-515C

[U+515B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+515D]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 10, +9, 11 strokes, cangjie input 竹女竹山 (HVHU), four-corner 77217).

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 125, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1386
  • Dae Jaweon: page 265, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 273, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+515C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意): 𠑹 (cover) + (head): a helmet.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • tau - vernacular;
  • to͘ - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (137)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/təu/
Pan
Wuyun
/təu/
Shao
Rongfen
/təu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/təw/
Li
Rong
/tu/
Wang
Li
/təu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dōu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
dau1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dōu
Middle
Chinese
‹ tuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁo/
English helmet, hood

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2449
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*toː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. helmet; hood
  2. helmet-shaped
  3. armor
  4. to wrap in a bag; to encase; to carry in a wrap
  5. bag; pouch; plastic bag
  6. pocket
  7. to pocket; to keep; to retain; to acquire dishonestly
  8. to reach
  9. to move around; to move in a circle
    [Cantonese]  ―  dau1 lai4 dau1 heoi3 [Jyutping]  ―  to pace around; to walk around here and there
  10. to canvass; to solicit
  11. to take responsibility for
  12. to relate in detail
  13. to peddle; to hawk
  14. (Hokkien) home
  15. (Min Nan) nearby
  16. (Cantonese) lunchbox
  17. (Cantonese) to save, to assue
  18. (Hakka) Plural marker for pronouns.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (plural marker for pronouns): (men); (Cantonese)

Compounds[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

Readings[edit]

  • Go-on: (tsu); (to)
  • Kan-on: とう ()
  • Kun: かぶと (kabuto, )

Etymology[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
かぶと
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings

(kabuto): a traditional Japanese helmet.

From Old Japanese. Found in the Nihon Shoki of 720 C.E. with the reading kaputo.[1]

Derivation currently unknown.

  • A surface analysis might suggest a derivation from 被る (kaburu, to wear something on the head). However, that reading derives from older form kagafuru and does not appear until 850,[1] some time after the first appearance of kabuto.
  • An alternative analysis might suggest a compound of (kabu, head, kun'yomi and native Japanese term) +‎ (to, helmet, on'yomi and borrowing from Chinese). However, the “head” sense with the kabu reading does not appear until near the end of the Muromachi period.[1]
  • Word-medial bilabial plosives usually underwent lenition, shifting along the lines of /p//f//w/, then vanishing altogether except where the following vowel was /a/. This lenition often did not happen at morpheme boundaries in compound words. The persistence of the /b/ in kabuto might thus suggest that this term was originally a compound of ka + puto. The ka element is uncertain, possibly the (ka-) intensifying prefix added to adjectives; Old Japanese puto would be the stem and root of modern 太い (futoi, thick; fat; stout), possibly in reference to the protective strength provided by a helmet. This puto would then have undergone rendaku (連濁) to become buto.
Compare the phonology of adjective か細い (kabosoi, very slender), composed of this ka- prefix and adjective 細い (hosoi, ancient pososi) and demonstrating a similar retention of the bilabial plosive and rendaku (連濁).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かぶと) (kabuto

  1. helmet

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eum (du))

  1. (투구 두, tugu-): helmet (especially, made of iron)

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: đâu

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.