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- (anatomy) That part of the skull consisting of the bones enclosing the brain, but not including the bones of the face or jaw.
- Synonyms: braincase, neurocranium
- Hyponyms: calvarium, ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid
- 1858, Henry Gray, “The Skull”, in Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, page 19:
- The Skull is divided into two parts, the Cranium and the Face. The Cranium is composed of eight bones; […]
- 1899 February, Joseph Conrad, “The Heart of Darkness”, in Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, volume CLXV, number M, New York, N.Y.: The Leonard Scott Publishing Company, […], →OCLC, part I, page 201:
- ‘I always ask leave, in the interests of science, to measure the crania of those going out there,’ he said.
- 1908, J. McFadyean, “Part I: Osteology and Arthrology”, in The Comparative Anatomy of the Domesticated Animals, page 165:
- The cranium of the fowl is composed of the same elements as are present in the mammalian cranium, save that there is no interparietal.
- 2010, Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn, “Chapter 7 "The Skeleton"”, in Human Anatomy and Physiology, 8th edition, page 200:
- The cranial bones, or cranium (kra′ne-um), enclose and protect the fragile brain and furnish attachment sites for head and neck muscles.
- (anthropology, informal) The upper portion of the skull, including the neurocranium and facial bones, but not including the jawbone (mandible).
- 2014, Emma L. Brown, Ronald A. Dixon, Jason W. Birkett, “The Discolouration of Human Teeth from Archaeological Contexts: Elemental Analysis of a Black Tooth from a Roman Cranium Recovered from the River Witham, Lincoln, UK”, in Journal of Anthropology, volume 2014, →DOI:
- In this study, the cranium recovered from the River Witham in Lincoln exhibited a black metallic staining on the surfaces of the teeth.
- (informal) Synonym of .
(anatomy) braincase or neurocranium
upper part of skull without the mandible
skull — see skull
- “cranium”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
- “cranium”, in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1996–present.
- (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈkraː.ni.um/, [ˈkräːniʊ̃ˑ]
- (modern Italianate Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈkra.ni.um/, [ˈkräːnium]
Second-declension noun (neuter).
1Found in older Latin (until the Augustan Age).
Descendants of cranium in other languages
- → Asturian: craniu
- → Catalan: crani
- → Danish: kranium, kranie
- → Dutch: cranium
- → English: cranium
- → Esperanto: kranio
- → French: crâne
- → German: Kranium
- → Galician: cranio
- → Ido: kranio
- → Interlingua: cranio
- → Italian: cranio
- → Kabuverdianu: kraniu
- → Malay: kranium
- → Norman: cranne
- → Norwegian Bokmål: kranium, kranie
- → Norwegian Nynorsk: kranium, kranie
- → Portuguese: crânio
- → Romanian: craniu
- → Spanish: cráneo
- → Swedish: kranium, kranie