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U+93E1, 鏡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-93E1

[U+93E0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+93E2]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 167 +11, 19 strokes, cangjie input 金卜廿山 (CYTU), four-corner 80116, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1320, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40812
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1820, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4250, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+93E1

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
鏡-bigseal.svg 鏡-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡaŋʔ
*kraŋʔ
*kraŋs
*kraŋs
*kraŋs
*ɡraŋ
*qraŋʔ
*qraŋʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kraŋs): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kraŋs).

Etymology[edit]

Unknown. Various hypotheses exist:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kèng - literary;
  • kiàⁿ - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (111)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠiæŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚiaŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiaŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kiajŋH/
Li
Rong
/kiɐŋH/
Wang
Li
/kĭɐŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯ɐŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jìng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjængH ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.qraŋʔ-s/
English mirror

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6870
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kraŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. mirror; reflecting glass
  2. to mirror; to reflect
  3. to perceive; to observe clearly
  4. to use for reference; to draw lessons from
  5. clear
  6. (physics) lens; -scope
  7. spectacles; glasses
  8. A surname​.

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 鏡子 (“mirror”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 鏡子
Mandarin Beijing 鏡子
Taiwan 鏡子
Harbin 鏡子
Jinan 鏡子
Muping 鏡子
Luoyang 鏡子
Jiedian 鏡子
Xi'an 鏡兒
Xining 鏡兒
Yinchuan 鏡子
Lanzhou 鏡子
Ürümqi 鏡子
Wuhan 鏡子
Chengdu 鏡子
Guiyang 鏡子
Liuzhou 鏡子
Yangzhou 鏡子
Nanjing 鏡子
Hefei 鏡子
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Dongguan
Hong Kong (Weitou)
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang 鏡子
Lichuan
Pingxiang 鏡子
Hakka Meixian 鏡仔
Yudu 鏡子
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 鏡仔
Liudui (S. Sixian) 鏡仔
Hsinchu (Hailu) 鏡仔
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping) 鏡仔
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Hong Kong
Huizhou Jixi
Jin Taiyuan 鏡兒鏡子
Xinzhou 鏡兒
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Matsu
Min Nan Xiamen
Taipei
Penang
Chaozhou
Shantou
Haikou
Leizhou
Pinghua Nanning
Wu Shanghai 鏡子
Suzhou 鏡子
Hangzhou 鏡子
Wenzhou 玻璃鏡
Chongming 鏡子
Danyang 鏡子
Jinhua
Ningbo 鏡子
Xiang Changsha 鏡子
Shuangfeng 鏡子
Loudi 鏡子
Dialectal synonyms of 眼鏡 (“eyeglasses”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 靉靆眼鏡
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 眼鏡
Mandarin Beijing 眼鏡兒
Taiwan 眼鏡
Tianjin 眼鏡兒
Harbin 眼鏡兒鏡子
Jinan 眼鏡子鏡子
Muping 眼鏡
Luoyang 眼鏡兒二餅兒 derogatory
Jiedian 眼鏡鏡子 dated二柄子 derogatory
Xi'an 眼鏡
Xining 眼鏡兒眼鏡兒子
Xuzhou 二餅 humorous
Yinchuan 眼鏡
Lanzhou 眼鏡子鏡子二軲轆 humorous
Ürümqi 眼鏡子鏡子
Wuhan 眼鏡鏡子 dated玻璃 humorous
Chengdu 眼鏡兒眼鏡
Guiyang 眼鏡
Liuzhou 眼鏡
Yangzhou 眼鏡子
Nanjing 眼鏡二餅 humorous
Cantonese Guangzhou 眼鏡
Hong Kong 眼鏡
Dongguan 眼鏡二文錢 dated
Taishan 眼鏡
Gan Nanchang 眼鏡子
Lichuan 眼鏡
Pingxiang 眼鏡
Hakka Meixian 目鏡眼鏡
Yudu 眼鏡
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 目鏡眼枷仔
Liudui (S. Sixian) 目鏡眼鏡眼架仔
Hsinchu (Hailu) 目鏡
Dongshi (Dabu) 目鏡
Zhuolan (Raoping) 目鏡
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 目鏡
Huizhou Jixi 眼鏡
Jin Taiyuan 眼鏡
Xinzhou 眼鏡二餅子 derogatory
Min Dong Fuzhou 眼鏡
Fuqing 眼鏡
Matsu 眼鏡
Min Nan Xiamen 目鏡
Quanzhou 目鏡
Zhangzhou 目鏡
Taipei 目鏡
Kaohsiung 目鏡
Tainan 目鏡
Taichung 目鏡
Wuqi 目鏡
Hsinchu 目鏡
Taitung 目鏡
Lukang 目鏡
Yilan 目鏡
Magong 目鏡
Penang 目鏡
Singapore 目鏡
Philippines (Manila) 目鏡
Chaozhou 目鏡
Shantou 目鏡
Haikou 目鏡
Leizhou 目鏡
Pinghua Nanning 眼鏡眼加
Wu Shanghai 眼鏡托力克
Suzhou 眼鏡
Hangzhou 眼鏡兒
Wenzhou 眼鏡眼視鏡
Chongming 眼鏡
Danyang 眼鏡子
Jinhua 眼鏡
Ningbo 蔡眼
Xiang Loudi 眼鏡

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (きょう) (kyō)
  • Korean: (, gyeong)
  • Vietnamese: kính ()

Others:


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. mirror

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally a compound of (kaga, shadow; outline; figure; image, ancient combining form of modern reading kage) +‎ (mi, seeing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 見る miru, “to see, to look at”, cognate with me, “eye”).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かがみ, rōmaji kagami)

  1. an instrument that reflects an image: a mirror
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3468)
      夜麻杼里乃 乎呂能波都乎尓 可賀美可家 刀奈布倍美許曽 奈尓与曽利鶏米
      やまとりの をろのはつをに かがみかけ となふべみこそ なによそりけめ
      yamatori no oro no hatsuo ni kagami kake tonau bemi koso na ni yosori kemu
  2. (Noh) the panel at the back of a Noh stage that is painted with an image of an old pine tree
  3. the barrelhead or lid of a saké barrel
    昨日 (きのう) (かがみ) ()いた。
    Kinō, kagami o nuita.
    They removed the barrelhead yesterday. → They opened the saké barrel yesterday.

Idioms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gyeong) (hangeul , revised gyeong, McCune-Reischauer kyŏng, Yale kyeng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana かがん, romaji kagan)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese (kagami, mirror), itself derived as a compound of (kaga, shadow; outline; image, ancient combining form of modern reading kage) + (mi, seeing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 見る miru, “to see, to look at”, cognate with me, “eye”).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かがん, romaji kagan)

  1. mirror

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(kính, kẻng, gương, kiếng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Yonaguni[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana かか゚ん, romaji kaŋan)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese (kagami, mirror), itself derived as a compound of (kaga, shadow; outline; image, ancient combining form of modern reading kage) + (mi, seeing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 見る miru, “to see, to look at”, cognate with me, “eye”).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かか゚ん, romaji kaŋan)

  1. mirror