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See also:
U+93E1, 鏡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-93E1

[U+93E0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+93E2]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 167, +11, 19 strokes, cangjie input 金卜廿山 (CYTU), four-corner 80116, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1320, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40812
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1820, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4250, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+93E1

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
variant forms ⿰钅井 second round simplified

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
鏡-seal.svg 鏡-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡaŋʔ
*kraŋʔ
*kraŋs
*kraŋs
*kraŋs
*ɡraŋ
*qraŋʔ
*qraŋʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kraŋs): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kraŋs).

Etymology[edit]

Unknown. Various hypotheses exist:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kèng - literary;
  • kiàⁿ - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiæŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚiaŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiaŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kiajŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiɐŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭɐŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ɐŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jìng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jìng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjængH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.qraŋʔ-s/
    English mirror

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6870
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kraŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. mirror; reflecting glass
    2. to mirror; to reflect
    3. to perceive; to observe clearly
    4. to use for reference; to draw lessons from
    5. clear
    6. (physics) lens; -scope
    7. spectacles; glasses
    8. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 鏡子 (“mirror”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 鏡子
    Mandarin Beijing 鏡子
    Taiwan 鏡子
    Harbin 鏡子
    Jinan 鏡子
    Muping 鏡子
    Luoyang 鏡子
    Jiedian 鏡子
    Xi'an 鏡兒
    Xining 鏡兒
    Yinchuan 鏡子
    Lanzhou 鏡子
    Ürümqi 鏡子
    Wuhan 鏡子
    Chengdu 鏡子
    Guiyang 鏡子
    Liuzhou 鏡子
    Yangzhou 鏡子
    Nanjing 鏡子
    Hefei 鏡子
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Dongguan
    Hong Kong (Weitou)
    Taishan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang 鏡子
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang 鏡子
    Hakka Meixian 鏡仔
    Yudu 鏡子
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 鏡仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 鏡仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 鏡仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 鏡仔
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan 鏡兒鏡子
    Xinzhou 鏡兒
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Penang
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai 鏡子
    Suzhou 鏡子
    Hangzhou 鏡子
    Wenzhou 玻璃鏡
    Chongming 鏡子
    Danyang 鏡子
    Jinhua
    Ningbo 鏡子
    Xiang Changsha 鏡子
    Shuangfeng 鏡子
    Loudi 鏡子
    Dialectal synonyms of 眼鏡 (“eyeglasses”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 靉靆眼鏡
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 眼鏡
    Mandarin Beijing 眼鏡兒
    Taiwan 眼鏡
    Tianjin 眼鏡兒
    Harbin 眼鏡兒鏡子
    Jinan 眼鏡子鏡子
    Muping 眼鏡
    Luoyang 眼鏡兒二餅兒 derogatory
    Jiedian 眼鏡鏡子 dated二柄子 derogatory
    Xi'an 眼鏡
    Zhengzhou 眼鏡
    Xining 眼鏡兒眼鏡兒子
    Xuzhou 二餅 humorous
    Yinchuan 眼鏡
    Lanzhou 眼鏡子鏡子二軲轆 humorous
    Ürümqi 眼鏡子鏡子
    Wuhan 眼鏡鏡子 dated玻璃 humorous
    Chengdu 眼鏡兒眼鏡
    Guiyang 眼鏡
    Guilin 眼鏡
    Liuzhou 眼鏡
    Yangzhou 眼鏡子
    Nanjing 眼鏡二餅 humorous
    Cantonese Guangzhou 眼鏡
    Hong Kong 眼鏡
    Shunde 眼鏡
    Foshan 眼鏡
    Zhongshan 眼鏡
    Dongguan 眼鏡二文錢 dated
    Taishan 眼鏡
    Doumen 眼鏡
    Kaiping 眼鏡
    Shaoguan 眼鏡
    Yunfu 眼鏡
    Xinyi 眼鏡
    Lianjiang 眼鏡
    Nanning 眼鏡
    Wuzhou 眼鏡
    Yulin 眼鏡
    Hepu 眼鏡
    Gan Nanchang 眼鏡子
    Lichuan 眼鏡
    Pingxiang 眼鏡
    Hakka Meixian 目鏡眼鏡
    Luchuan 眼鏡
    Yudu 眼鏡
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 目鏡眼枷仔 dated眼枷 dated
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 目鏡眼鏡眼枷仔眼枷
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 目鏡
    Dongshi (Dabu) 目鏡
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 目鏡
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 目鏡
    Huizhou Jixi 眼鏡
    Jin Taiyuan 眼鏡
    Xinzhou 眼鏡二餅子 derogatory
    Hohhot 眼鏡兒
    Min Dong Fuzhou 眼鏡
    Fuqing 眼鏡
    Matsu 眼鏡
    Min Nan Xiamen 目鏡
    Quanzhou 目鏡
    Zhangzhou 目鏡
    Taipei 目鏡
    Kaohsiung 目鏡
    Tainan 目鏡
    Taichung 目鏡
    Wuqi 目鏡
    Hsinchu 目鏡
    Taitung 目鏡
    Lukang 目鏡
    Yilan 目鏡
    Magong 目鏡
    Penang 目鏡
    Singapore 目鏡
    Philippines (Manila) 目鏡
    Pingnan 眼鏡
    Chaozhou 目鏡
    Shantou 目鏡
    Haifeng 目鏡
    Wenchang 目鏡
    Haikou 目鏡
    Leizhou 目鏡
    Puxian Min Putian 目鏡
    Xianyou 目鏡
    Pinghua Nanning 眼鏡眼枷
    Guilin 眼鏡子
    Wu Shanghai 眼鏡托力克
    Suzhou 眼鏡
    Hangzhou 眼鏡兒
    Wenzhou 眼鏡眼視鏡
    Chongming 眼鏡
    Danyang 眼鏡子
    Jinhua 眼鏡
    Ningbo 蔡眼
    Xiang Changsha 眼鏡
    Loudi 眼鏡
    Quanzhou 眼鏡

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (きょう) (kyō)
    • Korean: (, gyeong)
    • Vietnamese: kính ()

    Others:


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. mirror
    2. speculum

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かがみ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    Originally a compound of (kaga, shadow; outline; figure; image, ancient combining form of modern reading kage) +‎ (mi, seeing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 見る miru, “to see, to look at”, cognate with me, “eye”).[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かがみ, rōmaji kagami)

    1. a mirror (smooth reflecting surface)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3468)[3], text here
         () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
        山鳥 (やまどり) ()ろのはつをに (かがみ) () (とな)ふべみこそ () ()そりけめ [Modern spelling]
        yamadori no oro no hatsuo ni kagami kake tonau bemi koso na ni yoserikeme
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      • 1999 March 6, “ミラージュ [Mirage]”, in Starter Boxスターターボックス (in Japanese), Konami:
         ()にする (かがみ)から (なか) () () ()すことのできる (とり)のけもの。
        Te ni suru kagami kara nakama o yobidasu koto no dekiru tori no kemono.
        An avian beast that can call upon its companions from inside the mirror in its hands.
      • 1999 July 22, “アブソリューター [Absolutor]”, in Vol.4 (in Japanese), Konami:
         (あい) () (かがみ) (なか) () (かい) () ()むことができる。
        Aite o kagami no naka no sekai ni suikomu koto ga dekiru.
        It can suck opponents into the world inside the mirror.
    2. (Noh) the panel at the back of a Noh stage that is painted with an image of an old pine tree
    3. the barrelhead or lid of a saké barrel
       () (のう) (かがみ) ()いた。
      Kinō, kagami o nuita.
      They removed the barrelhead yesterday. → They opened the saké barrel yesterday.

    Idioms[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana かがみ, rōmaji Kagami)

    1. A place name
    2. A surname​.
    3. A female given name

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada; Rikio Kudō; Masao Ōtani; Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 3: Man’yōshū 3 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 2002, →ISBN.

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gyeong) (hangeul , revised gyeong, McCune–Reischauer kyŏng, Yale kyeng)

    1. mirror
    2. lens
    3. glass
    4. glasses

    Okinawan[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (kagami, mirror), itself derived as a compound of (kaga, shadow; outline; image, ancient combining form of modern reading kage) + (mi, seeing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 見る miru, “to see, to look at”, cognate with me, “eye”).

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana かがん, romaji kagan)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かがん, romaji kagan)

    1. mirror

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (kính, kẻng, gương, kiếng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Yonaguni[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (kagami, mirror), itself derived as a compound of (kaga, shadow; outline; image, ancient combining form of modern reading kage) + (mi, seeing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 見る miru, “to see, to look at”, cognate with me, “eye”).

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana かか゚ん, romaji kaŋan)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かか゚ん, romaji kaŋan)

    1. mirror