Attested in the late Ming Dynasty:
- glasses; eyeglasses; spectacles (Classifier: 副 )
|Kanji in this term|
|かね > がね|
Probably originally a compound of 目 (me, “eye”) + 金 (kane, “metal”, in reference to the metal used in eyeglass frames). The kane changes to gane as an instance of rendaku (連濁). The spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓), based on an apparent borrowing from Chinese (see the gankyō reading below).
Appears in texts from the late 1500s.
- 色眼鏡 (iro megane, “colored glasses”)
- 色眼鏡で見る (iro megane de miru, “to see or look at something through colored glasses”)
- お眼鏡 (omegane, “(honorific) judgement”)
- 蟹眼鏡 (kani megane, “a kind of binocular for use on a cannon”)
- 絡繰り眼鏡 (karakuri megane, “peep show”)
- 黒眼鏡 (kuro megane, “sunglasses, dark glasses”)
- 水中眼鏡 (suichū megane, “hydroscope, water glass, swimming goggles”)
- 伊達眼鏡 (date megane, “glasses for show”)
- 塵除け眼鏡 (chiriyoke megane, “protection glasses”)
- 遠眼鏡 (tōmegane, “telescope, binoculars”)
- 錦眼鏡 (nishiki megane, “kaleidoscope”)
- 覗き眼鏡 (nozoki megane, “peep show; water glass”)
- 箱眼鏡 (hako megane, “water glass”)
- 鼻眼鏡 (hana megane, “pince-nez”)
- 百色眼鏡 (hyakuiro megane, “kaleidoscope”)
- 百眼鏡 (hyaku megane, “kaleidoscope”)
- 股眼鏡 (mata megane, “looking through or between one's legs”)
- 水眼鏡 (mizu megane, “swimming goggles”)
- 虫眼鏡 (mushi megane, “magnifying glass”)
- 眼鏡絵 (megane e, “painting designed to be viewed through a special type of glasses”)
- 眼鏡が狂う (megane ga kuruu, “to have bad judgement”)
- 眼鏡越し (meganegoshi, “seeing through glasses”)
- 眼鏡猿 (meganezaru, “tarsier”)
- 眼鏡違い (megane chigai, “misjudgement”)
- 眼鏡にかなう (megane ni kanau, “to win the favour of”)
- 眼鏡橋 (meganebashi, “arched bridge”)
- 眼鏡蛇 (megane hebi, “Indian cobra, spectacled cobra”)
- 雪眼鏡 (yuki megane, “snow goggles”)
- ロイド眼鏡 (roido megane, “thick round celluloid glasses”)
- Korean: 메가나 (megana)
|Kanji in this term|
/ɡankjau/ → /ɡankjɔː/ → /ɡankjoː/
Probably a borrowing from written Chinese 眼鏡. Eyeglasses are first mentioned in Chinese in the 1400s as 靉靆 (aidai?), a transcription of an Arabic term. By the late Ming dynasty, eyeglasses appear in writing as 靉靆即眼鏡 (“aidai, i.e. eye-lenses”), using the compound term 眼鏡 (literally “eye + lens”). Compare modern Min Nan reading gán-kiàⁿ.
This reading appears in texts from the 1920s.
This reading was mostly used by the military. The standalone term gankyō may be somewhat archaic now.
Note that there are compounds that end in 眼鏡 (gankyō) that appear to be derived from this term. However, Japanese sources parse these as deriving from other terms ending in 眼 (gan, “eye”) that are then suffixed with 鏡 (kyō, “lens”).
- 望遠鏡 (bōenkyō): telescope
- 顕微鏡 (kenbikyō): microscope
- 潜望鏡 (senbōkyō): periscope
- 万華鏡 (mangekyō): kaleidoscope
- オペラグラス (operagurasu): opera glasses
Terms that appear to be derived from 眼鏡 (gankyō), but that are not actually derivations:
|Hanja in this term|
Cognate with Japanese 眼鏡 (gankyō, “eyeglasses”), ultimately deriving from written Chinese 眼鏡. Eyeglasses are first mentioned in Chinese in the 1400s as 靉靆 (aidai?), a transcription of an Arabic term. By the late Ming dynasty, eyeglasses appear in writing as 靉靆即眼鏡 (“aidai, i.e. eye-lenses”), using the compound term 眼鏡 (literally “eye + lens”). Compare modern Min Nan reading gán-kiàⁿ.
- 目眼鏡 (mīganchō, “glasses”)