靉靆

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Chinese[edit]

cloudy; shady
trad. (靉靆)
simp. (叆叇)
variant forms 僾逮 “eyeglasses”
矮納矮纳 “eyeglasses”

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/1
Initial () (34) (7)
Final () (41) (41)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔʌiH/ /dʌiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔəiH/ /dəiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɒiH/ /dɒiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔəjH/ /dəjH/
Li
Rong
/ʔᴀiH/ /dᴀiH/
Wang
Li
/ɒiH/ /dɒiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔɑ̆iH/ /dʱɑ̆iH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ài dài

Etymology 1[edit]

Native reduplicative ideophone.

Adjective[edit]

靉靆

  1. (literary, ideophonic, of clouds) thick
  2. (literary, ideophonic, of the sky) gloomy; dark; cloudy
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Phono-semantic matching of a word from an unidentified foreign language (pronounced ai-dai, ai-na, etc.), since the 15th century CE (Chiu, 1936). Frequently cited etymons are Arabic عُوَيْنات(ʿuwaynāt), الْعُوَيْنات(al-ʿuwaynāt, spectacles, literally little eyes) and Persian عینک(eynak, spectacles), both derived from Arabic عَيْن(ʿayn, eye) (Chiu, 1936; Needham, 1962: 118–121; Hong, 1994; Chiu, 2015).

Semantically, the sense “eyeglasses” was associated with Etymology 1, the interpretation being that eyeglasses are what cover the eyes to allow one to see more clearly, akin to the way clouds cover the sky, according to Liuqing rizha (《留青日札》, 1573 CE) by Ming-dynasty scholar Tian Yiheng.

Noun[edit]

靉靆

  1. (literary, obsolete) eyeglasses; spectacles
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of 眼鏡 (“eyeglasses”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 靉靆眼鏡
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 眼鏡
Mandarin Beijing 眼鏡兒
Taiwan 眼鏡
Tianjin 眼鏡兒
Harbin 眼鏡兒鏡子
Jinan 眼鏡子鏡子
Muping 眼鏡
Luoyang 眼鏡兒二餅兒 derogatory
Jiedian 眼鏡鏡子 dated二柄子 derogatory
Xi'an 眼鏡
Zhengzhou 眼鏡
Xining 眼鏡兒眼鏡兒子
Xuzhou 二餅 humorous
Yinchuan 眼鏡
Lanzhou 眼鏡子鏡子二軲轆 humorous
Ürümqi 眼鏡子鏡子
Wuhan 眼鏡鏡子 dated玻璃 humorous
Huanggang 眼鏡兒
Chengdu 眼鏡兒眼鏡
Guiyang 眼鏡
Guilin 眼鏡
Liuzhou 眼鏡
Yangzhou 眼鏡子
Nanjing 眼鏡二餅 humorous
Malaysia 眼鏡
Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 眼鏡子
Cantonese Guangzhou 眼鏡
Hong Kong 眼鏡
Shunde 眼鏡
Foshan 眼鏡
Zhongshan 眼鏡
Dongguan 眼鏡二文錢 dated
Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 眼鏡
Taishan 眼鏡
Kaiping 眼鏡
Shaoguan 眼鏡
Yunfu 眼鏡
Xinyi 眼鏡
Lianjiang 眼鏡
Nanning 眼鏡
Wuzhou 眼鏡
Yulin 眼鏡
Hepu 眼鏡
Gan Nanchang 眼鏡子
Lichuan 眼鏡
Pingxiang 眼鏡
Hakka Meixian 目鏡眼鏡
Luchuan 眼鏡
Yudu 眼鏡
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 目鏡眼枷仔 dated眼枷 dated
Liudui (S. Sixian) 目鏡眼鏡眼枷仔眼枷
Hsinchu (Hailu) 目鏡
Dongshi (Dabu) 目鏡
Hsinchu (Raoping) 目鏡
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 目鏡
Huizhou Jixi 眼鏡
Jin Taiyuan 眼鏡
Xinzhou 眼鏡二餅子 derogatory
Hohhot 眼鏡兒
Min Bei Jian'ou 眼鏡
Songxi 眼鏡
Jianyang 眼鏡
Min Dong Fuzhou 眼鏡
Fuqing 眼鏡
Gutian 眼鏡
Ningde 眼鏡
Zhouning 眼鏡
Fuding 眼鏡
Matsu 眼鏡
Min Nan Xiamen 目鏡
Quanzhou 目鏡
Zhangzhou 目鏡
Taipei 目鏡
Kaohsiung 目鏡
Tainan 目鏡
Taichung 目鏡
Wuqi 目鏡
Hsinchu 目鏡
Taitung 目鏡
Lukang 目鏡
Yilan 目鏡
Magong 目鏡
Penang 目鏡
Singapore 目鏡
Philippines (Manila) 目鏡
Pingnan 眼鏡
Chaozhou 目鏡
Shantou 目鏡
Haifeng 目鏡
Wenchang 目鏡
Haikou 目鏡
Leizhou 目鏡
Puxian Min Putian 目鏡
Xianyou 目鏡
Pinghua Nanning 眼鏡眼枷
Guilin 眼鏡子
Wu Shanghai 眼鏡托力克
Suzhou 眼鏡
Hangzhou 眼鏡兒
Wenzhou 眼鏡眼視鏡
Chongming 眼鏡
Danyang 眼鏡子
Jinhua 眼鏡
Ningbo 蔡眼
Xiang Changsha 眼鏡
Loudi 眼鏡
Quanzhou 眼鏡