苦心

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Chinese[edit]

 
bitter; intensely; miserable; painful
heart; mind
simp. and trad.
(苦心)

Pronunciation[edit]


Noun[edit]

苦心

  1. pains; efforts; hard work

Adverb[edit]

苦心

  1. with strenuous efforts; painstakingly

Descendants[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
しん
Grade: 2
on’yomi

Etymology[edit]

From (ku, hard, energetically) + (shin, heart)

Noun[edit]

苦心 (hiragana くしん, rōmaji kushin)

  1. pains, efforts, hard work

Derived terms[edit]

  • 苦心談 (kushindan): account of the hardships one has encountered
  • 苦心惨憺 (kushin santan): taking great pains

Idioms[edit]

Verb[edit]

苦心する (hiragana くしん, rōmaji kushin)

  1. make strenuous efforts, be at pains to, struggle to
     () (しん)して
    kushin shite
    with great pains

Conjugation[edit]