sack

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See also: Sack and säck

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English sak (bag, sackcloth), from Old English sacc (sack, bag) and sæcc (sackcloth, sacking); both from Proto-West Germanic *sakku, from late Proto-Germanic *sakkuz (sack), borrowed from Latin saccus (large bag), from Ancient Greek σάκκος (sákkos, bag of coarse cloth), from Semitic, possibly Phoenician.

Cognate with Dutch zak, German Sack, Swedish säck, Hebrew שַׂק(śaq, sack, sackcloth), Aramaic סַקָּא‎, Classical Syriac ܣܩܐ‎, Ge'ez ሠቅ (śäḳ), Akkadian 𒆭𒊓 (saqqu), Egyptian sꜣgꜣ. Doublet of sac.

Černý and Forbes suggest the word was originally Egyptian, a nominal derivative of sꜣq (to gather or put together) that also yielded Coptic ⲥⲟⲕ (sok, sackcloth) and was borrowed into Greek perhaps by way of a Semitic intermediary. However, Vycichl and Hoch reject this idea, noting that such an originally Egyptian word would be expected to yield Hebrew *סַק rather than שַׂק‎. Instead, they posit that the Coptic and Greek words are both borrowed from Semitic, with the Coptic word perhaps developing via Egyptian sꜣgꜣ.

Noun[edit]

sack (plural sacks)

  1. A bag; especially a large bag of strong, coarse material for storage and handling of various commodities, such as potatoes, coal, coffee; or, a bag with handles used at a supermarket, a grocery sack; or, a small bag for small items, a satchel.
  2. The amount a sack holds; also, an archaic or historical measure of varying capacity, depending on commodity type and according to local usage; an old English measure of weight, usually of wool, equal to 13 stone (182 pounds), or in other sources, 26 stone (364 pounds).
    • The American sack of salt is 215 pounds; the sack of wheat, two bushels. — McElrath.
    • 1843, The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. 27, page 202
      Seven pounds make a clove, 2 cloves a stone, 2 stone a tod, 6 1/2 tods a wey, 2 weys a sack, 12 sacks a last. [...] It is to be observed here that a sack is 13 tods, and a tod 28 pounds, so that the sack is 364 pounds.
    • 1882, James Edwin Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England[1], volume 4, page 209:
      Generally, however, the stone or petra, almost always of 14 lbs., is used, the tod of 28 lbs., and the sack of thirteen stone.
  3. (uncountable) The plunder and pillaging of a captured town or city.
    The sack of Rome.
  4. (uncountable) Loot or booty obtained by pillage.
  5. (American football) A successful tackle of the quarterback behind the line of scrimmage. See verb sense4 below.
  6. (baseball) One of the square bases anchored at first base, second base, or third base.
    He twisted his ankle sliding into the sack at second.
  7. (informal) Dismissal from employment, or discharge from a position, usually as give (someone) the sack or get the sack. See verb sense5 below.
    The boss is gonna give her the sack today.
    He got the sack for being late all the time.
  8. (colloquial, US) Bed (either literally or figuratively); usually as hit the sack or in the sack. See also sack out.
  9. (dated) (also sacque) A kind of loose-fitting gown or dress with sleeves which hangs from the shoulders, such as a gown with a Watteau back or sack-back, fashionable in the late 17th to 18th century; or, formerly, a loose-fitting hip-length jacket, cloak or cape.
    • 1749, Henry Fielding, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, Book IV, chapter vii, Google Books
      Molly, therefore, having dressed herself out in this sack, with a new laced cap, and some other ornaments which Tom had given her, repairs to church with her fan in her hand the very next Sunday.
    • 1780, Frances Burney, Journals & Letters, Penguin 2001, p. 151:
      Her Dress, too, was of the same cast, a thin muslin short sacque and Coat lined throughout with Pink, – a modesty bit – and something of a very short cloak half concealed about half of her old wrinkled Neck […].
    • 1828, JT Smith, Nollekens and His Times, Century Hutchinson 1986, p. 13:
      This lady's interesting figure, on her wedding-day, was attired in a sacque and petticoat of the most expensive brocaded white silk, resembling net-work, enriched with small flowers [] .
  10. (dated) A sack coat; a kind of coat worn by men, and extending from top to bottom without a cross seam.
  11. (vulgar, slang) The scrotum.
    He got passed the ball, but it hit him in the sack.
Synonyms[edit]
Hyponyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Terms derived from sack (noun)
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: サック (sakku)
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

sack (third-person singular simple present sacks, present participle sacking, simple past and past participle sacked)

  1. To put in a sack or sacks.
    Help me sack the groceries.
  2. To bear or carry in a sack upon the back or the shoulders.
  3. To plunder or pillage, especially after capture; to obtain spoils of war from.
    The barbarians sacked Rome.
  4. (American football) To tackle the quarterback behind the line of scrimmage, especially before he is able to throw a pass.
    • 1995, John Crumpacker and Gwen Knapp, "Sack-happy defensive line stuns Dolphins", SFGate.com, November 21,
      On third down, the rejuvenated Rickey Jackson stormed in over All-Pro left tackle Richmond Webb to sack Marino yet again for a 2-yard loss.
  5. (informal) To discharge from a job or position; to fire.
    He was sacked last September.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Etymology 2[edit]

From earlier (wyne) seck from Middle French (vin (wine)) sec (dry), from Latin siccus (dry)

Noun[edit]

sack (countable and uncountable, plural sacks)

  1. (dated) A variety of light-colored dry wine from Spain or the Canary Islands; also, any strong white wine from southern Europe; sherry.
    • c. 1590–1592, William Shakespeare, “The Taming of the Shrew”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, (please specify the act number in uppercase Roman numerals, and the scene number in lowercase Roman numerals):
      Will't please your lordship drink a cup of sack? ...I ne'er drank sack in my life...
    • c. 1597, William Shakespeare, “The First Part of Henry the Fourth, []”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, (please specify the act number in uppercase Roman numerals, and the scene number in lowercase Roman numerals):
      Thou art so fat-witted, with drinking of old sack...let a cup of sack be my poison...Wherein is he good, but to taste sack and drink it?
    • 1610, The Tempest, by Shakespeare, act 2 scene 2
      How didst thou 'scape? How cam'st thou hither? swear / by this bottle how thou cam'st hither—I escaped upon / a butt of sack, which the sailors heaved overboard, by / this bottle!
    • The New Sporting Magazine (volume 15, page 23)
      The vesper bell had rung its parting note; the domini were mostly caged in comfortable quarters, discussing the merits of old port; and the merry student had closed his oak, to consecrate the night to friendship, sack, and claret.
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

sack (plural sacks)

  1. Dated form of sac (pouch in a plant or animal).
    • 1938, The Microscope (volumes 1-2, page 56)
      Sometimes fishes are born that have rudimentary yolk sacks. Such young are born prematurely.

Etymology 4[edit]

Verb[edit]

sack (third-person singular simple present sacks, present participle sacking, simple past and past participle sacked)

  1. Alternative spelling of sac (sacrifice)

Noun[edit]

sack (plural sacks)

  1. Alternative spelling of sac (sacrifice)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Forbes, Robert Jacobus (1955) Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. IV, p. 66
  • Černý, Jaroslav (1976) Coptic Etymological Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 149
  • Vycichl, Werner (1983) Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Copte, Leuven: Peeters, →ISBN, page 186
  • Hoch, James E. (1994) Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period, Princeton: Princeton University Press, →ISBN, page 269

Anagrams[edit]


Westrobothnian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse sokkr, from Latin soccus (slipper), from Ancient Greek σύκχος (súkkhos, a kind of shoe), probably from Phrygian or another language from Asia Minor.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

sack m or f

  1. Sock.

Derived terms[edit]