Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/márkos

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The form has been connected to words for 'horse' that extend eastward in non-IE languages, but the dating and direction of borrowing remains uncertain. T. Gamkrelidze and V. Ivanov associate the word to horse riding in the Bronze Age.[1][2] Most scholars regard it as a Wanderwort of unknown origin. Altaic, Thracian and Scythian reconstructions are among the most discussed theories.[3]

Reconstruction[edit]

The reconstruction at the PIE level is disputed on several grounds:

  • limited geographical distribution in Western IE - only present in the Celtic and Germanic branches.
  • the presence of rare/disputed PIE phoneme */a/, a reconstruction *mh₂érkos seems untenable.

Noun[edit]

*márkos m

  1. horse (Equus caballus)
  2. (possibly) wild horse (Equus przewalskii or gmelini)

Usage notes[edit]

Possibly denoting only a "wild horse" or "war horse" as opposed to the *h₁éḱwos (domestic horse).

Inflection[edit]

Thematic
singular
nominative *márkos
genitive *márkosyo
singular dual plural
nominative *márkos *márkoh₁ *márkoes
vocative *márke *márkoh₁ *márkoes
accusative *márkom *márkoh₁ *márkoms
genitive *márkosyo *? *márkooHom
ablative *márkead *? *márkomos
dative *márkoey *? *márkomos
locative *márkey, *márkoy *? *márkoysu
instrumental *márkoh₁ *? *márkōys

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Celtic: *markos (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *marhaz (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  1. ^ R. Matasović (2009): Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic, p. 257.
  2. ^ T. Gamkrelidze & V. Ivanov (1995): Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans, p. 472-473.
  3. ^ G. Lee, H. Whittaker, G. Wrightson (2015): Ancient Warfare: Introducing Current Research, Volume I, pp. 175-176