갈다

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Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean ᄀᆞᆯ다〮 (Yale: kòl-tá), probably from pre-MK *<kòl->; see Appendix:Koreanic reconstructions#/l/ and /ɾ/ merger. Manchu ᡥᠠᠯᠠᠮᠪᡳ (halambi, to change, to replace) is probably borrowed from Koreanic in ancient times.

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?galda
Revised Romanization (translit.)?galda
McCune–Reischauer?kalda
Yale Romanization?kalta

Verb[edit]

Korean verb set
Base 갈다 (galda)
Causative갈리다 (gallida)
Passive갈리다 (gallida)

갈다 (galda) (infinitive 갈아, sequential 가니) (transitive)

  1. to change, to replace, to switch (in general)
    Synonym: 교체(交替)하다 (gyochehada)
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

First attested in the Worin seokbo (月印釋譜 / 월인석보), 1459, as Middle Korean ᄀᆞᆯ〮다〮 (Yale: kól-tá), probably from pre-MK *<kór->; see Appendix:Koreanic reconstructions#/l/ and /ɾ/ merger.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ˈka̠(ː)ɭda̠]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?galda
Revised Romanization (translit.)?galda
McCune–Reischauer?kalda
Yale Romanization?kālta

Verb[edit]

Korean verb set
Base 갈다 (galda)
Causative갈리다 (gallida)
Passive갈리다 (gallida)

갈다 (galda) (infinitive 갈아, sequential 가니) (transitive)

  1. to grind
  2. to whet, to hone (a blade)
    갈다kar-eul galdato sharpen a sword
  3. to grit, to gnash (one's teeth)
    갈다i-reul galdato gnash one's teeth
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

First attested in the Worin seokbo (月印釋譜 / 월인석보), 1459, as Middle Korean 갈〯다〮 (Yale: kǎl-tá).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ˈka̠(ː)ɭda̠]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?galda
Revised Romanization (translit.)?galda
McCune–Reischauer?kalda
Yale Romanization?kālta

Verb[edit]

Korean verb set
Base 갈다 (galda)
Causative갈리다 (gallida)
Passive갈리다 (gallida)

갈다 (galda) (infinitive 갈아, sequential 가니) (transitive)

  1. to sow; to plow, to till
    갈다bat-eul galdato plow a field
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]