蝦夷

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See also: 虾夷

Chinese[edit]

shrimp; prawn
 
safe; to raze; to exterminate; barbarian
trad. (蝦夷)
simp. (虾夷)
variant forms 蝦蛦虾蛦
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Etymology[edit]

Orthographic borrowing from Japanese 蝦夷 (Emishi).

Pronunciation[edit]


Noun[edit]

蝦夷

  1. an ancient ethnic group living in eastern Japan; Emishi

Derived terms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

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Kanji in this term
Jinmeiyō Jinmeiyō
jukujikun

Etymology 1[edit]

⟨emi1si⟩[1] → */emʲisɨ//emɨsə/ → */emʉsə/ → */ensə/ → */enzə//enzo//ezo/.

Shift from Emishi (see below).

Also attested as Yezo.[2][3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

蝦夷 (hiragana えぞ, rōmaji Ezo)

  1. (historical) Emishi: ancient ethnic group that once lived on what is now the Kantō, Hokuriku and Tōhoku regions, likely as far as Hokkaido, possibly related to the Ainu people; dubbed as "barbarians" or "savages" by the Yamato
    • 1153, Kyūan Hyakushu (Fujiwara no Chikataka, poem 34)
      えぞ () () (がろ) () ()萩盛 (はぎさか)りこや (にしき) () ()てるなるらん
      Ezo ga sumu Tsugaro-no-nobe no hagi sakari koya nishikigi no taterunaruran
      In Tsugaro where the Ezo live, the fields are abloom with clover; by now they will be setting up wooden trees, brocaded with desire.[5]
  2. (regional) Short for 蝦夷松 (Ezo matsu): the Yezo spruce, Picea jezoensis

Proper noun[edit]

蝦夷 (hiragana えぞ, rōmaji Ezo)

  1. (historical) Short for 蝦夷地 (Ezoji) Ezo/Yezo: collective name of Hokkaido, Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin (mostly Hokkaido) before the Meiji period
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Jinmeiyō Jinmeiyō
jukujikun

⟨emi1si⟩ → */emʲisɨ//emiɕi/

From Old Japanese.

Borrowing from Ainu, possibly from エンジュ (*emzyu) or エンチウ (*emchiw, man, person).[4] Also attested as Yemishi. [6][7]

The kanji spelling is likely jukujikun (熟字訓), literally "shrimp + barbarian", attested many times in the Nihon Shoki (720 CE).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

蝦夷 (hiragana えみし, rōmaji Emishi)

  1. (historical, archaic) Emishi: ancient ethnic group that once lived on what is now the Kantō, Hokuriku and Tōhoku regions, likely as far as Hokkaido, possibly related to the Ainu people; dubbed as "barbarians" or "savages" by the Yamato
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (poem 11)[9]
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
      蝦夷 (えみし)一人 (ひだり) (もも) (ひと) (ひと) ()へども抵抗 (たむかひ)もせず [Modern spelling]
      Emishi o hidari momo na hito hito wa ie domo tamukai mo sezu
      Though folk say that one Yemishi is a match for one hundred men, they do not so much as resist.[10]
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

蝦夷 (hiragana えみし, rōmaji Emishi)

  1. Short for 蘇我蝦夷 (Soga no Emishi): Asuka-period statesman of the Yamato court, son of Soga no Umako and father of Soga no Iruka

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Jinmeiyō Jinmeiyō
jukujikun

⟨emi1si⟩ → */emʲisɨ//emisə//emisu/

Shift from Emishi (see above).

This spelling appears in the Heian-period Nihon Shoki Shiki, a lectural interpretation of the Nihon Shoki.

Noun[edit]

蝦夷 (hiragana えみす, rōmaji Emisu)

  1. (historical, archaic) Emishi: ancient ethnic group that once lived on what is now the Kantō, Hokuriku and Tōhoku regions, likely as far as Hokkaido, possibly related to the Ainu people; dubbed as "barbarians" or "savages" by the Yamato

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
Jinmeiyō Jinmeiyō
jukujikun

/emisu//ebisu/

Shift from either Emishi or Emisu (see above), the nasal /m/ becomes a plosive /b/.

Noun[edit]

蝦夷 (hiragana えびす, rōmaji Ebisu)

  1. (historical, possibly archaic) Emishi: ancient ethnic group that once lived on what is now the Kantō, Hokuriku and Tōhoku regions, likely as far as Hokkaido, possibly related to the Ainu people; dubbed as "barbarians" or "savages" by the Yamato
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Emisi" at Oxford-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese
  2. ^ John Batchelor (1902). Sea-girt Yezo: glimpses of missionary work in North Japan, The Church Missionary Society, page 2
  3. ^ Hanihara, K. (1990). "Emishi, Ezo and Ainu: An Anthropological Perspective". Japan Review, (1), 35-48. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25790886
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ David Bialock (2007) Eccentric Spaces, Hidden Histories: Narrative, Ritual, and Royal Authority from The Chronicles of Japan to The Tale of the Heike (Asian Religions and Cultures)‎[1], Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 196
  6. ^ Frank Brinkley and Dairoku Kikuchi (1915). A History of the Japanese People: From the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era, The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, page 39
  7. ^ Hanihara, K. (1990). Emishi, Ezo and Ainu: An Anthropological Perspective. Japan Review, (1), 35-48. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25790886
  8. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  9. ^ Sakamoto, Tarō; Ienaga Saburō, Inoue Mitsusada, Ōno Susumu (1965) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei: Nihon Shoki (vol. 1), Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
  10. ^ William George Aston (1896) Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697, page 124