外人

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Chinese

[edit]
outside; in addition; foreign
outside; in addition; foreign; external
 
man; person; people
trad. (外人)
simp. #(外人)

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (31) (38)
Final () (26) (43)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () I III
Fanqie
Baxter ngwajH nyin
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋuɑiH/ /ȵiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋʷɑiH/ /ȵin/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋuɑiH/ /ȵʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋwajH/ /ȵin/
Li
Rong
/ŋuɑiH/ /ȵiĕn/
Wang
Li
/ŋuɑiH/ /ȵʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋuɑiH/ /ȵʑi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wèi rén
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ngoi6 jan4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wài rén
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngwajH › ‹ nyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ʷˁa[t]-s/ /*ni[ŋ]/
English outside (other) person

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 12606 10800
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋʷaːds/ /*njin/

Noun

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外人

  1. non-family member
  2. outsider; stranger
  3. foreigner

Synonyms

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  • (stranger):
  • (foreigner):

Antonyms

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  • (antonym(s) of non-family member): 自己人 (zìjǐrén)

See also

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Japanese

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Kanji in this term
がい
Grade: 2
じん
Grade: 1
on’yomi
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1

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/gwaizin/ > /gaizin/ [gaidʑin]. Literally outside person. From the late 19th on also used for foreigners.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(がい)(じん) (gaijinぐゎいじん (gwaizin)?

  1. (obsolete) outsider; an estranged, unfamiliar person
  2. (sometimes derogatory) alien, foreigner; especially foreigner in Japan
    • 1875: 文明論之概略 (page 18)
      譬えば頑固なる士民は外国人を悪むを以て常とせり。又学者流の人にても少しく見識ある者は外人の挙動を見て決して心酔するに非ず,之を悦ばざるの心は彼の頑民に異なることなしと云うも可なり。
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
  3. (Hawaii) A white person
Usage notes
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Today 外人 often has a stereotyped connotation, and 外国人 is used as a neutral term.

Synonyms
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Adjective 疎い (utoi, unacquainted) in attributive form and (hito, person).

Noun

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外人(うときひと) (utoki hito

  1. an estranged, unfamiliar person

References

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  • Doi, Tadao (1603–1604) Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1980, →ISBN.
  • Fukuzawa, Yukichi (1995) [1875] Bunmeiron no Gairyaku, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
  • Hanawa, Hokiichi (1960) Gunsho Ruijū, volume 8, Tōkyō: Zoku Gunsho Ruijū Kanseikai
  • Kamei, Takashi (1944) [1617] Kagakushū: Gennabon, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten
  • Kidō, Saizō with Imoto Nōichi (1961) Iwanami Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei: Renga Ronshū, Haironshū (in Japanese), Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
  • Takagi, Ichinosuke with Masao Ozawa, Kaoru Atsumi, Haruhiko Kindaichi (1959) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 32: Heike Monogatari 1 (in Japanese), Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
  • Tasaka, Junko (1985) [995-999] Fusōshū: Kōhon to Sakuin, Fukuoka: Tōka Shobō
  • Fukkoku Nihon Koten Zenshū: Setsuyōshū, Tōkyō: Gendai Shichō Shinsha, 2006 [1597], →ISBN

Anagrams

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Korean

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Hanja in this term

Noun

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外人 (oein) (hangeul 외인)

  1. Hanja form? of 외인 (foreigner, alien).