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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *t/duŋ ⪤ *ts(y)uːŋ (Matisoff, STEDT); *tsyuːŋ (Benedict, 1972) (later revised to *tuːŋ); *tuuŋ (LaPolla, 1987)

Secondary affricativisation conditioned by medial /-u-/ occurred in many cases, a phenomenon reminiscent of modern Japanese /tu/, [t͡sɯ]. The original initial was a plain or perhaps palatalised (?) plosive.



  1. navel
  2. centre


  • Old Chinese: /*truŋ/ (B-S), /*tuŋ/ (ZS) ("centre"); /*truŋ-s/ (B-S), /*tuŋs/ (ZS) ("to hit the centre, to match, to suffer"); /*ɴ-truŋ-s/ (B-S), /*duŋs/ (ZS) ("to be in the middle, second")

       Vietnamese:  đúng (exact, accurate, correct, right) (?)

    ( in the oracle bone script) 中-oracle.svg
    ( in bronzeware inscriptions) 中-bronze.svg
    • Middle Chinese: (ʈɨuŋ, ʈɨuŋH), (ɖɨuŋH)

         Japanese:   (ちゅう, ​chū)
            Korean:   (, jung)
            Vietnamese:  trung, trúng

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (zhōng, /ʈ͡ʂʊŋ⁵⁵/), (zhòng, /ʈ͡ʂʊŋ⁵¹/), (zhòng, /ʈ͡ʂʊŋ⁵¹/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /t͡sʊŋ⁵⁵, t͡sʊŋ³³/, /t͡sʊŋ²²/
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: གཞུང (gzhung, centre, core, middle; government; (main) text, scripture, literature)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi

See also[edit]