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See also:
U+718A, 熊
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-718A

[U+7189]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+718B]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 86, +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 戈心火 (IPF), four-corner 21331, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 679, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19294
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1090, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2227, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+718A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
熊-seal.svg 熊-bigseal.svg




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢʷlɯm): phonetic  (OC *nɯː, *nɯːs, *nɯːŋ, *nɯːŋʔ) + semantic  (fire).

This character originally represented an onomatopoetic word (see 熊熊). Later its phonetic compound , the character for the Old Chinese word "bear", was borrowed for another word. This character thus began to represent the word "bear" instead.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d-wam. Cognate with Tibetan དོམ (dom, bear), Burmese ဝံ (wam) (in ဝက်ဝံ (wak-wam, bear)).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hîm - vernacular;
  • hiông - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕyŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /ɕyŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕyŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ɕyŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /ɕiŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɕyuŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /ɕyŋ²⁴/
    Xining /ɕyə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕyŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ɕỹn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ɕyŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ɕioŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /ɕyoŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /ɕioŋ²¹/
    Kunming /ɕiŋ³¹/
    Nanjing /ɕioŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /ɕiŋ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕyŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ɕỹŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦioŋ²³/
    Suzhou /ɦioŋ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦioŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /joŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ɕyʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ɕin⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ɕioŋ¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɕin¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕiuŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /iuŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ʒuŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ²¹/
    Nanning /juŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /huŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ³⁵/
    /him³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hyŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xœyŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /him⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (35)
    Final () (2)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɨuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦiuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣiuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦuwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣiuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣĭuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯uŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yóng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xióng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hjuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.[ɢ]ʷ(r)əm/
    English bear (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13906
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢʷlɯm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. bear (mammal) (Classifier: m; )
    2. (colloquial) to scold
    3. to oppress, to tyrannise
    4. mean; malicious; merciless
    5. loutish; oafish
    6. (slang) bear; a large, hairy man, especially homosexual one
    7. A surname​: Xiong (mainland China), Hsiung (Taiwan), Hung (Hong Kong)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. bear

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    (kuma): a brown bear.
    Kanji in this term
    くま
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Probably cognate with (kuma, inside corner; inner bend; hollow or hole in something), perhaps from the way that bears often live in dens. Probably also cognate with Korean (gom, bear; hole).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana くま, katakana クマ, rōmaji kuma)

    1. a bear (large mammal of family Ursidae)
    2. (slang) a bear, an otter (a hairy man, especially one who is gay)

    Usage notes[edit]

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as クマ.

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (ung)

    1. bear

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hùng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.