rake

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See also: Rake and råke

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

A wooden rake (sense 1) used for gardening.
A heavy-duty metal rake (sense 1) for moving rocks and soil.
A horse-drawn hayrake (sense 1).

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English rake [and other forms], from Old English raca, racu, ræce (tool with a row of pointed teeth, rake),[1] from Proto-Germanic *rakō, *rekô (tool with a row of pointed teeth, rake), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃reǵ- (to straighten, right oneself). The English word is cognate with Danish rage (chiefly regional), Middle Dutch rāke, rēke (modern Dutch raak, reek (both regional), riek (pitchfork, rake)), Middle Low German rāke, racke (modern German Low German Raak (rake; poker)), Old High German rehho, rech (Middle High German reche, modern German Rechen (rake)), Old Norse reka (shovel) (modern Icelandic reka (shovel)), Old Saxon recho, Old Swedish raka (modern Swedish raka (rake; (long) straight section of a road)).[2]

Noun[edit]

rake (plural rakes)

  1. (agriculture, horticulture) A garden tool with a row of pointed teeth fixed to a long handle, used for collecting debris, grass, etc., for flattening the ground, or for loosening soil; also, a similar wheel-mounted tool drawn by a horse or a tractor.
    Synonym: horserake (horse-drawn rake)
    • 1879, R[ichard] J[efferies], “The Old Punt: A Curious ‘Turnpike’”, in The Amateur Poacher, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., [], OCLC 752825175, pages 19–20:
      Orion hit a rabbit once; but though sore wounded it got to the bury, and, struggling in, the arrow caught the side of the hole and was drawn out. [...]. Ikey the blacksmith had forged us a spearhead after a sketch from a picture of a Greek warrior; and a rake-handle served as a shaft.
  2. (by extension) A similarly shaped tool used for other purposes.
    1. (gambling) A tool with a straight edge at the end used by a croupier to move chips or money across a gaming table.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

The verb is partly derived:[3][4]

The English word is cognate with Middle Dutch rāken (modern Dutch raken (to rake) (regional)), Middle Low German rāken, Old Danish raghæ, rakæ (modern Danish rage (to shave)), Old Swedish raka (modern Swedish raka (to rake; to shave)).[3]

The noun is derived from the verb.[6]

Verb[edit]

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. To act upon with a rake, or as if with a rake.
    She is raking the gravel path to keep it even.
    We raked all the leaves into a pile.
    1. (transitive, also figuratively) Often followed by in: to gather (things which are apart) together, especially quickly.
      The casino is just raking in the cash; it’s like a licence to print money.
    2. (transitive) Often followed by an adverb or preposition such as away, off, out, etc.: to drag or pull in a certain direction.
    3. (transitive, intransitive, figuratively) To claw at; to scrape, to scratch; followed by away: to erase, to obliterate.
      The cat’s sharp claws raked the side of my face.
      • 1593, Philip Sidney, “The Fifth Booke”, in H[ugh] S[anford], editor, The Covntesse of Pembrokes Arcadia [] [The New Arcadia], London: [] William Ponsonbie, OCLC 1049103286; republished in Albert Feuillerat, editor, The Last Part of The Countesse of Pembrokes Arcadia [] (Cambridge English Classics: The Complete Works of Sir Philip Sidney; II), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: University Press, 1922, OCLC 496012517, page 220:
        Pas could not stay, but over him did rake, / And crown'd the earth with his first touching crowne: [...]
      • 1835 November 30 (date composed), William Wordsworth, “Extempore Effusion upon the Death of James Hogg”, in Henry [Hope] Reed, editor, The Complete Poetical Works of William Wordsworth, Philadelphia, Pa.: Hayes & Zell, [], published 1860, OCLC 6755364, page 286, column 2:
        Like clouds that rake the mountain-summits, / Or waves that own no curbing hand, / How fast has brother followed brother, / From sunshine to the sunless land!
    4. (transitive, intransitive, figuratively) Followed by up: to bring up or uncover (something), as embarrassing information, past misdeeds, etc.
    5. (transitive, intransitive, also figuratively) To move (a beam of light, a glance with the eyes, etc.) across (something) with a long side-to-side motion; specifically (often military) to use a weapon to fire at (something) with a side-to-side motion; to spray with gunfire.
      The enemy machine guns raked the roadway.
    6. (transitive, chiefly Ireland, Northern England, Scotland, also figuratively) To cover (something) by or as if by raking things over it.
Conjugation[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

rake (plural rakes)

  1. The act of raking.
  2. Something that is raked.
    1. A share of profits, takings, etc., especially if obtained illegally; specifically (gambling) the scaled commission fee taken by a cardroom operating a poker game.
    2. (chiefly Ireland, Scotland, slang) A lot, plenty.
      Jim has had a rake of trouble with his new car.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Several rakes of wagons (sense 3) in the railway yard at Westfield, Otahuhu, New Zealand.

From Middle English rake, rakke (pass, path, track; type of fencing thrust; pasture land (?)),[7] and then partly:[8]

The English word is cognate with Icelandic rák (streak, stripe; notch in a rock; vein in stone or wood), Norwegian råk (channel (in ice); cow path; trail), Norwegian Nynorsk råk (channel (in ice); cow path; trail; furrow; stripe), Swedish råk (crack or channel in ice; river valley), Westrobothnian råk (crack or hole in ice; channel; swath, windrow; hair parting); and probably cognate with Old Danish rag (modern Danish rag (stiff; taut) (regional)), Old Norse rakr (straight), Swedish rak (straight).[8]

Noun[edit]

rake (plural rakes)

  1. (Northern England and climbing, also figuratively) A course, a path, especially a narrow and steep path or route up a hillside.
  2. (mining) A fissure or mineral vein of ore traversing the strata vertically, or nearly so.
  3. (Britain, originally Northern England, Scotland) A series, a succession; specifically (rail transport) a set of coupled rail vehicles, normally coaches or wagons.
    Synonym: consist
    The train was formed of a locomotive and a rake of six coaches.
    • 1959 April, “Motive Power Miscellany: London Midland Region”, in Trains Illustrated, London: Ian Allan Publishing, OCLC 829970336, page 222:
      On February 21 Class "O4/1" 2-8-0 No. 63635 passed through Manchester (Victoria) heading in the Rochdale direction with a rake of empty wagons.
  4. (systems theory) In cellular automata: a puffer that emits a stream of spaceships rather than a trail of debris.
  5. (Midlands, Northern England) Alternative spelling of raik (a course, a way; pastureland over which animals graze; a journey to transport something between two places; a run; also, the quantity of items so transported)
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. Alternative spelling of raik (“(intransitive, Midlands, Northern England, Scotland) to walk; to roam, to wander; of animals (especially sheep): to graze; (transitive, chiefly Scotland) to roam or wander through (somewhere)”)

Etymology 4[edit]

The verb is derived from Middle English raken (to go, proceed; to move quickly, hasten, rush; to roam, wander) [and other forms], from Old English racian (to go forward, move, run; to hasten; to take a course or direction; to control, direct, govern, rule),[9] from Proto-Germanic *rakōną (to take a course or direction; to run), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃reǵ- (to straighten; to direct oneself). The English word is cognate with Middle Dutch rāken (to acquire; to hit (not miss); to reach; to touch) (modern Dutch raken (to hit (not miss); to touch; to become)), Middle Low German rāken, rōken (to hit (not miss); to reach; to touch), Old High German rahhōn (to narrate, speak), and probably Swedish raka (to rush off).[10]

The noun is derived from the verb.[11]

Verb[edit]

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. (intransitive, chiefly Midlands, Northern England, Scotland) To move swiftly; to proceed rapidly.
  2. (intransitive, falconry) Of a bird of prey: to fly after a quarry; also, to fly away from the falconer, to go wide of the quarry being pursued.

Noun[edit]

rake (plural rakes)

  1. (Scotland) Rate of progress; pace, speed.
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

A coble (flat-bottomed fishing boat) in Northumberland, England, UK. The transom (flat part of the stern) of the boat has been raked (verb sense 2.1) – it slants forward and extends beyond the keel.
A chart showing the correct rakes (noun sense 2) or rake angles for various cutting tools.[n 1]

The origin of the verb is uncertain, but it may be related to:[12]

The noun is probably derived from the verb.[13]

Verb[edit]

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. (transitive, intransitive) To incline (something) from a perpendicular direction.
    Synonym: slope
    A mast rakes aft.
  2. (nautical) Senses relating to watercraft.
    1. (transitive) To provide (the bow or stern of a watercraft) with a rake (a slant that causes it to extend beyond the keel).
    2. (intransitive, rare) Of a watercraft: to have a rake at its bow or stern.
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

rake (plural rakes)

  1. A divergence from the horizontal or perpendicular; a slant, a slope.
  2. (specifically) In full, angle of rake or rake angle: the angle between the edge or face of a tool (especially a cutting tool) and a plane (usually one perpendicular to the object that the tool is being applied to).
  3. (geology) The direction of slip during the movement of a fault, measured within the fault plane.
  4. (nautical) Senses relating to watercraft.
    1. A slant that causes the bow or stern of a watercraft to extend beyond the keel; also, the upper part of the bow or stern that extends beyond the keel.
    2. A slant of some other part of a watercraft (such as a funnel or mast) away from the perpendicular, usually towards the stern.
  5. (roofing) The sloped edge of a roof at or adjacent to the first or last rafter.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

The Tavern Scene, the third of eight paintings in the series called A Rake’s Progress (1732–1734) by William Hogarth.[n 2] It depicts a rake named Tom Rakewell (right) having a wild party in a brothel.

The noun is a clipping of rakehell ((archaic) lewd or wanton person, debauchee, rake),[14] from to rake (out) hell (“to search through hell thoroughly”), in the sense of a person so evil or immoral that they cannot be found in hell even after an extensive search: see rake (to search through (thoroughly)).

The verb is derived from the noun.[15]

Noun[edit]

rake (plural rakes)

  1. A person (usually a man) who is stylish but habituated to hedonistic and immoral conduct.
    Synonym: roué
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. (intransitive, dated, rare) To behave as a rake; to lead a hedonistic and immoral life.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:harlotize
    • 1758, William Shenstone, Epilogue to Cleone
      When women hid their necks , and veil'd their faces ,
      Nor romp'd , nor raked , nor stared at public places

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ From “Grinding and Setting Lathe and Planer Cutting Tools”, in Canadian Machinery and Manufacturing News, volume XVIII, issue 1, Toronto, Ont.: MacLean Publishing Company, 5 July 1917, OCLC 317246317, page 21.
  2. ^ From the collection of Sir John Soane’s Museum in London, England, U.K.

References[edit]

  1. ^ rāke, n.(1)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. ^ rake, n.1”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake1, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  3. 3.0 3.1 rake, v.2”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008
  4. ^ rake1, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  5. ^ rāken, v.(1)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  6. ^ rake, n.8”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake1, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  7. ^ rāke, n.(3)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  8. 8.0 8.1 rake, n.3”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake4, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  9. ^ rāken, v.(2)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  10. ^ rake, v.1”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008
  11. ^ rake, n.4”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008
  12. ^ rake, v.3”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake3, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  13. ^ rake, n.6”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake3, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  14. ^ rake, n.7”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake2, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  15. ^ rake, v.4”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

rake

  1. Inflected form of raak

Verb[edit]

rake

  1. (archaic) singular present subjunctive of raken

Garo[edit]

Adverb[edit]

rake

  1. hard
  2. Na·a poraikana rake poriaha!
    You studied hard for the test!

Hausa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Yoruba ireke.

Noun[edit]

ràkē m (possessed form ràken)

  1. sugarcane

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Adjective[edit]

rake

  1. definite singular/plural of rak

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Adjective[edit]

rake

  1. definite singular/plural of rak

Verb[edit]

rake (present tense rakar, past tense raka, past participle raka, passive infinitive rakast, present participle rakande, imperative rak)

  1. Alternative form of raka

Scots[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English raken, from Old English racian (to direct; rule; take a course or direction; run).

Verb[edit]

rake (third-person singular present rakes, present participle rakin, past rakit, past participle rakit)

  1. To proceed with speed; go; make one's way
  2. To journey; travel
  3. (of animals) To move across or search for pasture; wander; roam
  4. To stray

Swedish[edit]

Adjective[edit]

rake

  1. absolute definite natural masculine form of rak.

Anagrams[edit]


Teop[edit]

Verb[edit]

rake

  1. to want

References[edit]