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See also:
U+990A, 養
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-990A

[U+9909]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+990B]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 184, +6, 15 strokes, cangjie input 廿人戈日女 (TOIAV), four-corner 80732, composition𦍌)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1419, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44144
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1943, character 31
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4452, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+990A

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𢼝
𢽁
𩛬

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *laŋʔ, *laŋs): phonetic (OC *laŋ, sheep) + semantic (to feed).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-klawŋ (to guard; to tend cattle; to graze; to be at leisure), whence Tibetan སྐྱོང (skyong, to keep; to nurture) (STEDT).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • ióng/iáng - literary;
  • iúⁿ/ióⁿ - vernacular;
  • chiūⁿ/chiōⁿ - vernacular (limited, disputed, e.g. 頭養, more often written as ).
Note:
  • ion2/iên2 - vernacular (iên2 - Chaozhou);
  • iang2 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /iɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /iaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yǎng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    joeng5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yǎng yǎng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ yangX › ‹ yangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ](r)aŋʔ/ /*[ɢ]aŋʔ/
    English long, longing nourish, raise

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 14613
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*laŋʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to raise; to rear
        ―  yǎng zhū  ―  to raise pigs
        ―  yǎng gǒu  ―  to pet a dog
    2. to support; to provide for; to bring up
        ―  yǎngjiā  ―  to support a family
      奶奶奶奶  ―  Tā shì nǎinai yǎng dà de.  ―  He was raised by his grandma.
      父母收入唔使 [Cantonese, trad.]
      父母收入唔使 [Cantonese, simp.]
      keoi5 fu2 mou5 zung6 jau5 sau1 jap6, m4 sai2 keoi5 joeng5. [Jyutping]
      His parents still have income and don't need to be provided for by him.
    3. to give birth to
    4. to rest; to convalesce
        ―  yǎngbìng  ―  to convalesce
        ―  yǎng gān míng mù  ―  to nourish the liver and improve vision
    5. to maintain
        ―  yǎng  ―  to maintain a road or railway
    6. to cultivate; to form
      每天運動習慣 [MSC, trad.]
      每天运动习惯 [MSC, simp.]
      yào yǎng chéng měitiān yùndòng de xíguàn [Pinyin]
      One needs to cultivate the habit of exercising daily.
    7. to let one's hair grow
    8. to support; to help
        ―  yǐ nóng yǎng gōng  ―  to use agriculture to support industries
    9. (in compounds) foster; adoptive
      父母父母  ―  yǎngfùmǔ  ―  foster parents
    10. accomplishment; cultivation
        ―  yǎng  ―  accomplishment
    11. 81st tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "fostering" (𝍖)
    Synonyms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Proto-Tai: *liəŋꟲ (to raise)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jɨɐŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiɐŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /iɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jɨaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /iaŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭaŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯aŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yàng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    joeng6
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 14616
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*laŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to support and provide for (parents or elder relatives)

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai
    Kyūjitai
    [1]

    養󠄁
    +&#xE0101;?
    (Adobe-Japan1)
    U990a-kyu.svg
    養󠄄
    +&#xE0104;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
    See here for details.

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Kanji in this term
    よう
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (よう) (やう (yau)?

    1. to raise; to rear; to bring up
    2. to support

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1914, 漢和大辭書 (Kanwa Dai Jisho, “The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 2337 (paper), page 1220 (digital), Tōkyō: 興文社 (Kōbunsha)

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 기를 (gireul yang))

    1. Hanja form? of (to raise).

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: dưỡng, dẳng

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.