From Middle English companion, from Old French compaignon (“companion”) (modern French compagnon), from Late Latin compāniōn- (nominative singular compāniō, whence French copain), from com- + pānis (literally, with + bread), a word first attested in the Frankish Lex Salica as a calque of a Germanic word, probably Frankish *galaibo, *gahlaibō (“messmate”, literally “with-bread”), from Proto-Germanic *gahlaibô. Compare also Old High German galeipo (“messmate”) and Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐌷𐌻𐌰𐌹𐌱𐌰 (gahlaiba, “messmate”); and, for the semantics, compare Old Armenian ընկեր (ənker, “friend”, literally “messmate”). More at co-, loaf. Displaced native Old English ġefēra.
companion (plural companions)
- A friend, acquaintance, or partner; someone with whom one spends time or accompanies
- His dog has been his trusted companion for the last five years.
- 1611 April (first recorded performance), William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Cymbeline”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act V, scene v]:
- Here are your sons again; and I must lose / Two of the sweetest companions in the world.
- 2017 September 27, David Browne, "Hugh Hefner, 'Playboy' Founder, Dead at 91," Rolling Stone
- (nautical) The framework on the quarterdeck of a sailing ship through which daylight entered the cabins below.
- (nautical) The covering of a hatchway on an upper deck which leads to the companionway; the stairs themselves.
- (topology) A knot in whose neighborhood another, specified knot meets every meridian disk.
- (figuratively) A thing or phenomenon that is closely associated with another thing, phenomenon, or person.
- (attributive) An appended source of media or information, designed to be used in conjunction with and to enhance the main material.
- The companion guide gives an in-depth analysis of this particular translation.
- (astronomy) A celestial object that is associated with another.
- A knight of the lowest rank in certain orders.
- a companion of the Bath
- (obsolete, derogatory) A fellow; a rogue.
- See also Thesaurus:friend
- (obsolete) To be a companion to; to attend on; to accompany.
- (Can we find and add a quotation of Ruskin to this entry?)
- (obsolete) To qualify as a companion; to make equal.
- c. 1606–1607, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Anthonie and Cleopatra”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene ii]:
- Companion me with my mistress.