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See also:
U+7D2F, 累
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7D2F

[U+7D2E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7D30]
U+F94F, 累
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F94F

[U+F94E]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F950]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
11 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 120, +5, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田女戈火 (WVIF), four-corner 60903, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 919, character 35
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27343
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1351, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3381, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+7D2F

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*roːl, *roːls
*roːl
*roːl
*roːl, *rul
*roːl, *rul
*roːlʔ
*ruːl, *ruːls
*ruːl
*ruːl, *ruːls
*ruːl, *ruːls
*ruːll, *ruːlʔ, *ruːls
*ruːl, *ruːlʔ, *ruːls
*ruːl, *rul, *ruls
*ruːl, *ruːlʔ
*ruːl, *ruːlʔ
*ruːl
*ruːl
*ruːl, *rulʔ
*ruːl
*ruːlʔ
*ruːlʔ
*ruːlʔ
*ruːls, *rolʔ, *rols
*ruːls, *rul
*rolʔ, *rul
*rul, *rulʔ
*rul
*rul, *ruls
*rul
*rul
*rulʔ
*rulʔ
*rulʔ
*rulʔ
*rulʔ

Simplified from ().

Folk etymology considers this character as an ideographic compound representing the tiredness after work. In ancient China, men were working in the field () while women sewed ().

Etymology[edit]

Various semantic fields can be distinguished:

“to add; to accumulate”
Related to (OC *rulʔ, “rampart; to build by piling rocks”), (OC *rolʔ), (OC *rolʔ) (Wang, 1982).
“to damage; exhausted; tired”
Related to (OC *ruːls, *rul, “tired”), (OC *ruːl, *ruːlʔ, *ruːls, “to injure”) (Schuessler, 2007). It can be compared with Khmer រួយ (ruəy, tired; exhausted), Mizo rawih (weak; worn out; broken down), Tibetan རུལ (rul, to decay; to rot), འབྲུལ ('brul, to fall; to come out), ཧྲུལ་པོ (hrul po, torn; ragged), སྲུལ (srul, (archaic) to rot; to decompose) (ibid.).
“to bind; to wind around”
See (OC *rul, *ruls).

Pronunciation 1[edit]

trad. /*
simp.


  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 累 (積)
Mandarin Beijing /lei²¹⁴/
Harbin /lei²¹³/
Tianjin /lei¹³/
Jinan /luei⁵⁵/
Qingdao /le⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /luei⁵³/
Xi'an /luei⁵³/
Xining /luɨ⁵³/
Yinchuan /luei⁵³/
Lanzhou /luei⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /luei⁵¹/
Wuhan /nei⁴²/
Chengdu /nuei⁵³/
Guiyang /nuei⁴²/
Kunming /luei⁵³/
Nanjing /luəi²¹²/
Hefei /le²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /luei⁵³/
Pingyao /luei⁵³/
Hohhot /luei⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /le²³/
Suzhou /le̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /lei⁵³/
Wenzhou /lai³⁵/
Hui Shexian /le³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /lei⁴¹/
Xiangtan /nəi⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /lui²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /lui⁴⁴/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /løy²³/
Nanning /lui²⁴/
Hong Kong /løy²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /luɔi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ly²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lui²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (37)
Final () (12)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liuᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/lʷiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljuɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lwiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/liueX/
Wang
Li
/lǐweX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lwie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lěi
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lěi
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljweX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ojʔ/
English accumulate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 7733
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rolʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to pile up; to heap up; to mount up; to accumulate
  2. repeated; numerous; unremitting; continuous; persistent
  3. to repeat; to replicate; to overlap
  4. to add (to); to increase; to grow
  5. to amount (to); to sum up (to)
  6. Alternative form of (“ancient weight unit”).
  7. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]

trad. /*
simp.

Note:
  • “To implicate”, “burden” and “to damage”:
    • lěi (Mainland standard, Taiwan variant);
    • lèi (Taiwan standard).
  • 累贅:
    • léi (Mainland standard, Taiwan variant);
    • lěi (Taiwan standard).
  • All other senses:
    • lèi.
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 累 (連)
    Mandarin Beijing /lei⁵¹/
    Harbin /lei⁵³/
    Tianjin /lei⁵³/
    Jinan /luei²¹/
    Qingdao /le⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /luei³¹²/
    Xi'an /luei⁰/
    Xining /luɨ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /luei¹³/
    Lanzhou /luei¹³/
    Ürümqi /luei²¹³/
    Wuhan /nei³⁵/
    Chengdu /nuei¹³/
    Guiyang /nuei²¹³/
    Kunming /luei²¹²/
    Nanjing /luəi⁴⁴/
    Hefei /le⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /luei⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /luei³⁵/
    Hohhot /luei⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /le²³/
    Suzhou /le̞³¹/
    Hangzhou /lei¹³/
    Wenzhou /lai³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /le²²/
    Tunxi /li¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /lei⁵⁵/
    /lei¹¹/
    Xiangtan /nəi²¹/
    Gan Nanchang /lui²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /lui⁵³/
    Taoyuan /lui⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /løy²²/
    Nanning /lui²²/
    Hong Kong /løy²²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lui²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /luɔi²⁴²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ly⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /lui³¹/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /lui³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (12)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /liuᴇH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lʷiɛH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ljuɛH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lwiə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /liueH/
    Wang
    Li
    /lǐweH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lwie̯H/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    lèi
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    No. 7735
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*rols/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to involve; to implicate; to embroil; to entangle; to hinder
    2. burden; tribulation; affliction; problem
    3. to damage; to hurt; to do harm to; to stain; to sully
    4. to entrust; to delegate; to devolve
    5. to cause trouble to; to trouble (someone)
    6. suffering; misery; harm; disaster
    7. fault; crime; slip; defect
    8. to strain; to wear out; to overwork; to overtax
    9. tired; weary; fatigued; exhausted
      •   ―  Wǒ hěn lèi.  ―  I'm tired.
    10. (of work) hard; tiring; hardworking
    11. verbose; long-winded; unnecessary; superfluous
    12. wife and children; one's family
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of (“tired”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 疲倦疲乏疲累疲憊
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian 𤸁
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𤸁
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 𤸁
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu) 𤸁
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen 𤺪
    Quanzhou 𤺪
    Zhangzhou 𤺪
    Taipei 𤺪
    Philippines (Manila) 𤺪
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Wu Suzhou 吃力
    Wenzhou 吃力
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng 鶴累

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“rope; to tie; bull in mating season”).
    (This character, , is the simplified and variant traditional form of .)
    Notes:

    Pronunciation 4[edit]

    simp. and trad.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 謼遫累.

    Pronunciation 5[edit]

    simp. and trad.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 肥累.

    Pronunciation 6[edit]

    simp. and trad.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Synonym of (luǒ, “bare; naked”).

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (ru>nu) (hangeul >, revised ru>nu, McCune–Reischauer ru>nu, Yale lwu>nwu)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (luỵ, lủi, luỹ, mệt, luy)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.