無明

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See also: 无明

Chinese[edit]

not have
 
clear; bright; to understand; next; the Ming dynasty
trad. (無明)
simp. (无明)

Etymology[edit]

ignorant; unintelligent
Calque of Sanskrit अविद्या (avidyā).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (4) (4)
Final () (24) (111)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨo/ /mˠiæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/mio/ /mᵚiaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/mio/ /miaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/muə̆/ /miajŋ/
Li
Rong
/mio/ /miɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/mĭu/ /mĭɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯u/ /mi̯ɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
míng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
míng
Middle
Chinese
‹ mju › ‹ mju › ‹ mju › ‹ mjæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*ma/ /*ma/ /*mo/ /*mraŋ/
English not have volitional prefix don’t bright

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 13117 9188
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ma/ /*mraŋ/

Adjective[edit]

無明

  1. (archaic) unable to see; blind
  2. (Buddhism) ignorant; unintelligent

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (無明):
  • Japanese: 無明 (むみょう) (mumyō)
  • Korean: 무명 (無明, mumyeong)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
みょう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Chinese. See there for more.

Noun[edit]

無明 (hiragana むみょう, rōmaji mumyō)

  1. (religion, Buddhism): avidyā: unenlightenment, ignorance of nirvana and of the fundamental state of existence

Further reading[edit]