和尚

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See also: 和尙

Chinese[edit]

 
mix together; peace; harmony; and; with; union; cap (a poem); respond in singing; soft; warm
 
still; yet; to value; to esteem
simp. and trad.
(和尚)
alt. forms

Etymology[edit]

“Senior monk who holds the precepts-granting ceremony; preceptor” > “high priest; head monk” > “Buddhist monks in general”. First attested in the 3rd–4th centuries, as 和上.

Borrowed from Prakrit uvajjhāa, uajjhāa, ujjhāa, ojjhāa, ojhāa, ujjhā, ujjha (“teacher; religious teacher”), all ultimately derived from Sanskrit उपाध्याय (upādhyāya, teacher; preceptor; spiritual adviser) (Chu, 2002). The use of (MC d͡ʑɨɐŋH) or (MC d͡ʑɨɐŋH) to render Prakrit jjhāa /d̚d͡ʑʱɑː.ɐ/ was probably influenced by:

  1. The loss of the nasal –ŋ coda in the ancient northwestern dialect of Middle Chinese, and
  2. The use of phono-semantic matching in transcription, with taken to mean “noble; virtuous; to revere” (idem).

Compare Pali upajjhāya, upajjhā, upajjha (spiritual teacher or preceptor), Hindi ओझा (ojhā, exorcist), Sindhi واڍو / वाढो (vāḍho, carpenter), Assamese ওজা (ûza, one well-versed in any art; teacher; sorcerer), Bengali ওঝা (ojha, snake-charmer; exorcist), Oriya ଓଝା (ojhā, teacher; one who cures snake-bites; wizard; exorcist; title of blacksmiths and carpenters), Malayalam വാധ്യായന്‍ (vādhyāyan‍, teacher; family priest), Tamil வாத்தியார் (vāttiyār, teacher; family priest; one who trains actors and dancers).

Alternative theories, such as those put forth by Tang Dynasty monks Xuanying and Huiyuan, hypothesise that this was borrowed from Khotanese or language of the Shule Kingdom, but these appear less likely.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (25)
Final () (95) (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () I III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuɑ/ /d͡ʑɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuɑ/ /d͡ʑiɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑ/ /d͡ʑiɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwa/ /d͡ʑɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑ/ /ʑiaŋH/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑ/ /ʑĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuɑ/ /ʑi̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huó shàng

Noun[edit]

和尚

  1. (Buddhism) preceptor; high priest; head monk
  2. (by extension) Buddhist monks in general

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (和尚):
  • Japanese:  () (しょう) (oshō);  () (しょう) (kashō);  () (じょう) (wajō)
  • Korean: 화상 (和尙, hwasang)
  • Vietnamese: hoà thượng (和尚)

Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
しょう
Grade: S
on’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

和尚 (hiragana おしょう, rōmaji oshō, historical hiragana をしやう)

  1. (Zen or Pure Land Buddhism) Buddhist priest
    1. a Buddhist priest who is the head of a temple or in a higher rank.
    2. title and style for high ranked Buddhist priests.
    3. a Buddhist priest master who gives instructions to other priests.
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
しょう
Grade: S
on’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

和尚 (hiragana かしょう, rōmaji kashō, historical hiragana くわしやう)

  1. (Tendai or Kegon Buddhism) preceptor; high priest

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
しょう > じょう
Grade: S
on’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

和尚 (hiragana わじょう, rōmaji wajō, historical hiragana わじやう)

  1. (Shingon, Hosso, Ritsu or Shin Buddhism) preceptor; high priest

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9


Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

和尚

  1. Hán tự form of hoà thượng, “senior Buddhist monk”