形而上學

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See also: 形而上学

Chinese[edit]

abstract or intangible things
 
learn; study; science; ‑ology
trad. (形而上學) 形而上
simp. (形而上学) 形而上

Etymology[edit]

Wasei kango (和製漢語) coined by Inoue Tetsujirō as a translation of English metaphysics, with the 形而上 (xíng'érshàng) part from I Ching:

是故形而上形而下 [Classical Chinese, trad.][▼ expand/hide]
是故形而上形而下 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
From: I Ching, 3rd – 2nd millennia BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
Shìgù, xíng'érshàng zhě wèi zhī dào, xíng'érxià zhě wèi zhī qì. [Pinyin]
Hence that which is antecedent to the material form exists, we say, as an ideal method, and that which is subsequent to the material form exists, we say, as a definite thing.

Pronunciation[edit]


Noun[edit]

形而上學

  1. metaphysics (a branch of philosophy)
  2. metaphysics (the world outlook and methodology opposed to dialectics)
    堅持唯物辯證法反對形而上學 [MSC, trad.]
    坚持唯物辩证法反对形而上学 [MSC, simp.]
    Jiānchí wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ, fǎnduì xíng'érshàngxué. [Pinyin]
    Adhere to dialectical materialism and oppose metaphysics.
  3. (dated) social science

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]