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See also: ⌠ [U+2320 TOP HALF INTEGRAL], ∫ [U+222B INTEGRAL], ʃ [U+0283 LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH], ẛ [U+1E9B LATIN SMALL LETTER LONG S WITH DOT ABOVE], ꞅ [U+A785 LATIN SMALL LETTER INSULAR S], and Appendix:Variations of "s"
ſ (upper case S)
- (Latin-script letters) letter; A a, B b, C c, D d, E e, F f, G g, H h, I i, J j, K k, L l, M m, N n, O o, P p, Q q, R r, S s, T t, U u, V v, W w, X x, Y y, Z z
- (archaic) The nineteenth letter of the English alphabet, called long s, medial s, or descending s and written in the Latin script.
- 1574, Iohn Caluine, translated by Thomas Norton, The Institution of Christian Religion, London: […] [T]he widowe of Reginalde Wolffe, title page and Table page:
- VVritten in Latine by M.Iohn Caluine, and tranſlated into Engliſ he according to the authors laſt edition, By thomas norton. […] And the redemptor ſ hall come to Sion,and vnto thẽ that turne frõ their vvickednes in Iacob.
- 1595, William Perkins, A Golden Chaine, or The Description Oe Theologie, page 16:
- God is not onely a bare permiſsiue agent in an euill worke, but a powerfull effectour of the ſame […]
- 1640, The Proceedings of the Commissioners Sent from the Parliament of Scotland to the King, page 52:
- The Lord Commiſsioner ſheweth, that it is his Majeſties will that the Parliament be prorogated to the 2. of June, and that by his Majeſties authority only: of the prorogation, the prætenſion is pag. 30.
- 1669, An Embassy from the East-India Company on the United Provinces, to the Grand Tartar Cham Emperor of China, pages 20–21:
- So upon the 20. of Auguﬆ Mr. Frederick Schzdel a Merchant, ſet ſail in the good Ship called the Brown Fiſh, very richly freighted with all ſorts of Merchandizes from Taiwan to Canton; and after nine days ſail, landed in the Canton River, at a place called Heytamon.
- 1767, Henry Fielding, The Works of Henry Fielding: In Twelve Volumes, with the Life of the Author, volume 3, page 273:
- Dor. I have been told, noble Squire, that you once impos’d a certain lady for Dulcinea on your maſter; now what think you if this young lady here ſhould perſonate that incomparable princeſs? / Jez. Who, I? / San. Adod! your princeſsſhip has hit it; for he has never ſeen this Dulcinea, nor has any body elſe, that I can hear of;
- 1783, Joseph Ritson, Remarks, Critical and Illustrative, on the Text and Notes of the Last Edition of Shakspeare, page 223:
- But he does not ſtab him for his treachery toward hisſelf […]
- 1785, Vicesimus Knox, Liberal Education: Or, a Practical Treatiſe on the Methods of Acquiring Uſeful and Polite Learning, vol. II, pp. 1 & 3, section XXXI: On the regulation of puerile diverſions:
- Many fanciful methods have been invented by thoſe who wiſhed to render puerile ſports conducive to improvement. I never found that they were ſucceſsful.
- I muſt own myſelf an advocate for puerile liberty*, during the alloted hours of relaxation. Boys have much reſtraint and confinement in the time of ſtudy.
- Thoſe of the effeminate kind ſuperinduce effeminacy; weakneſs of mind, no leſs than imbecility of body. Something ſimilar happens in puerile diverſions. The boy who has been kept in leading-ſtrings too long, and reſtrained from hardy ſports by the fondneſs of his mother, will ſcarcely ever become a man; or poſſeſs that becoming ſpirit which can enable him to act his part with propriety.
- 1796, John Hatsell, Precedents of Proceedings in the House of Commons: With Observations, page 102:
- 75. On the 11th of May, 1759, the Lords amend a turnpike road Bill, by inſerting a clauſe, “That no gate ſhall be erected within a mile of Enſham Ferry”. The conſideration of this amendment is reſolved, nemine contradicente, to be put off for a month.
- This is the long, medial, or descending s, as distinct from the short or terminal s (s).
- In Roman and Fraktur script, the long S was typically used everywhere except at the end of words, where the short S was used, with exceptions:
- The use of short S at the end of words was sometimes maintained even in derivative or compound words, as for example hisſelf (his + (-)ſelf), ſucceſsful (ſucceſs + -ful), princeſsſhip (see the 1767 quotation).
- Short S was sometimes used before letters with left-side ascenders, like b, f, or long ſ, which the top curl of a long S would overlap, making the sequence either difficult to print or unaesthetic, hence e.g. whisker instead of whiſker. An alternative was to insert a space between the long S and the ascender (whiſ ker), or use a ligature.
- Some documents wrote or typeset ss as ſs, e.g. in neceſsary, either as a deviation from all nonfinal s being ſ (especially in handwriting), or as a deviation from all s being s (as in the US Declaration of Independence: "When in the Course of human events, it becomes neceſsary for one people to diſsolve...", or US Constitution: "the first Claſs shall...").
- This distinction occurred only in minuscule (lowercase); the single majuscule (uppercase) form S was used regardless of word-position.
- Sometimes “ﬆ” was used instead of “ſt”.
The letter "ſ" was always replaced with an "s", regardless of word-position.
- ^ Joanna Gondris (1998) Reading Readings: Essays on Shakespeare Editing in the Eighteenth Century, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, →ISBN, page 64:
- As there were no ligatures at this time in long-s + k ( and very few in long-s + b), setting a long-s before a letter with an ascender at its left side (like k or b — or like f, for which there likely never was an English ligature with long-s) would break its kern against the ascender. Hence, to avoid fouling, a round-s was often used in this environment (though sometimes a long-s was set, along with a protective space under its fore-kern, which created a "pigeon hole" in the word in which it appeared, [...])
- (obsolete) A letter formerly used to represent the sound /z/, now replaced by z, and in the trigraph ſch, corresponding to modern ś; used primarily in texts written in Fraktur.
- (Latin-script letters) pismik; A a, B b, C c, Č č, Ć ć, D d, E e, Ě ě, F f, G g, H h, Ch ch, I i, J j, K k, Ł ł, L l, M m, N n, Ń ń, O o (Ó ó), P p, R r, Ŕ ŕ, S s, Š š, Ś ś, T t, U u, W w, Y y, Z z, Ž ž, Ź ź
- (obsolete letters) B́ b́, Ė ė, Ḿ ḿ, Ṅ ṅ, Ṕ ṕ, Ṙ ṙ, ſ, ß, Ꞩ ẜ, Ẃ ẃ, Ẇ ẇ, Ż ż
- typographical variant of s, typically used for all instances except a final -s