Appendix:Capital letter

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Translingual[edit]

A sign outside a museum, written with capital letters.

Letter[edit]

[capital letter]

  1. Single capital letter (either by itself, or as a combination of capital letters that can be used by themselves):
    1. In lists.
      1. In lists, followed by a period.
        A. Go to the store. B. Get some food. C. Return home. D. Eat.
      2. In lists, followed by a right parenthesis.
        A) Go to the store. B) Get some food. C) Return home. D) Eat.
    2. In some words, such as English "I".
    3. In hexadecimal numbers.
      A=10, B=11, AA=170, etc.
    4. Some abbreviations are composed of a single capital letter.
      1. (biology) In abbreviations of nucleobases.
        A=adenine, G=guanine
      2. (chemistry) In the abbreviations of elements, others are written with only the first letter capizalized (He, Ph, etc.)
        O=oxygen, H=hydrogen
      3. In the abbreviations of some units of measurement.
        C=coulomb, B=byte
      4. In the official abbreviations of SI prefixes M (mega) and above.
        M=mega, G=giga, P=peta, etc.
    5. (biology) In blood types (A, B, AB, O).
    6. Often used in Roman numerals, other times they are written in lowercase letters.
      I=1, II=2, ..., V=5
    7. (card games) Used in abbreviations of names of playing cards.
      A = ace, K = king, Q = queen, J = jack, T = ten
  2. First-letter capitalization:
    1. In proper nouns, which include:
      1. In names, surnames and nicknames.
      2. In names of places: countries, cities, etc.
      3. In names of landforms and parts of the ecosystem: mountains (Mount Fuji), forests (Amazon Forest), etc.
      4. In names of planets, stars, constellations, etc.
      5. In names of brands, companies and products.
      6. In names of organizations, musical bands and political parties.
      7. In titles of texts, books, movies, musics, etc.
      8. In titles of software, including video games.
    2. In the names of some trademarked products and some genericized trademarks.
      a Kleenex, a Mercedes, a Nintendo
    3. At the beginning of a sentence.
      The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
    4. In names, pronouns and (sometimes) adjectives that refer to God.
      I love the Lord for He is Great and Holy.
    5. (archaic) In words that are deemed to be important, especially in religious contexts or for abstract concepts.
      The greatest Vice is Pride, for it is thence that all Sin springs forth.
      The Parsonage was situated in the countryside, half a league from the Town.
    6. In taxonomic names. (Homo sapiens)
    7. In some abbreviations and acronyms.
      1. Acronyms include: Nato, Wysiwyg.
      2. (biology) In abbreviations of nucleobases.
        Ade=adenine, Gua=guanine
      3. (chemistry) In the abbreviations of elements.
        He=helium, Na=sodium, etc.
  3. All-caps:
    1. As a style choice.
      "POLICE" was written outside the police station.
    2. Used in many abbreviations and initialisms. (USA, etc.)
    3. Indicates that a person is shouting.
      I HAVE SOMETHING TO SAY!!!
    4. Used for emphasis.
      I need that report RIGHT NOW!
    5. Used in video subtitles, usually between square brackets or parentheses, to indicate comments or to provide explanations of sounds for deaf people.
      I have a question: would it be an exception if [INAUDIBLE]?
      [CAR WHIRRING] The car won't start!
    6. Used in Bibles to indicate translations of the Tetragrammaton
      And the LORD said unto Moses
      Und der HERR sprach zu Mose
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    7. Used in romanizations of Japanese names to indicate which part is the family name.
      YAMADA Taro
  4. CamelCase:
    1. In some brand names:
      iPhone; BlackBerry; PowerPoint presentation
    2. (programming) Optionally to indicate word breaks in the variables in some programming languages, often starting with a lowercase letter.
      Use the variables "startDate" and "endDate".
    3. (chemistry) In chemical formulae, the elements put together often form a CamelCase result, such as NaCl.
      NaCl=sodium chloride
    4. In some abbreviations for units of measurement, formed with lowercase prefix + uppercase unit:
      kA=kiloampere
    5. In pH and pOH.

See also[edit]

Here are the capital letters in the Latin script:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Entry-like pages (edit)
Typography Capital letter · Superscript · Subscript
Italics · Boldface · Underline · Strikethrough
Semantics Possessive
Suprasegmentals Repetition

English[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Letter[edit]

[capital letter]

  1. First-letter capitalization:
    1. Used in the word "I" and contractions: I'll, I'm, etc.
    2. Used in a number of honorifics: Mr., Dr., Mrs., etc.
    3. Used in adjectives derived from proper nouns: Canadian, Dickensian, etc.
    4. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to large established groupings of people:
      1. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to nations and countries and their citizens:
      2. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to states, regions and cities and their inhabitants:
      3. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to languages and their speakers:
      4. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to political parties and their members (especially when distinguished from people who hold similar views but aren't affiliated with a party):
        (compare small-l liberal)
      5. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to other organizations and their members:
      6. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to religions and their adherents:
    5. Used in days of the week (Monday) and months (December).
    6. Used in words derived from nouns and adjectives that start with a capital letter.
    7. Used in the first word of a sentence or of quoted speech.
      We all said "No, don't do that."
    8. Used in the first word and all other words except articles and most conjunctions in titles:
      The Lord of the Rings, A View to a Kill, Pride and Prejudice
    9. Used in ornithology in the names of birds – outside ornithology, these are usually lower case except for when the species name includes a word always written with a capital letter:
    10. (archaic) Used in all nouns.
      • 1703, Isaac Newton, Opticks, Book I
        My Design in this Book is not to explain the Properties of Light by Hypotheses, but to propose and prove them by Reason and Experiments.

Derived terms[edit]


French[edit]

Letter[edit]

[capital letter]

  1. First-letter capitalization:
    1. In titles, "important words":
      1. The first word is always capitalized.
        • À la recherche du temps perdu
          In Search of Lost Time
      2. Nouns which stand alone without articles or determiners.
        • Orgueil et Préjugés
          Pride and Prejudice
      3. The first noun, when this is at the very beginning of the title and is preceded by a definite article.
        • Le Seigneur des anneaux; L'Internationale
          The Lord of the Rings; The International
      4. Other nouns with definite articles linked to the initial noun by et
        • Le Lion, la Sorcière blanche et l'Armoire magique; La Belle et la Bête
          The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe; Beauty and the Beast
      5. Prenominal adjectives attached to capitalized nouns.
        • Le Petit Prince; Les Deux Tours
          The Little Prince; The Two Towers
      6. Proper nouns and other nouns that are always capitalized in French.
        • Voyage au centre de la Terre
          Journey to the Centre of the Earth

Usage Notes[edit]

Accents are optional on capital letters (e.g. état vs. Etat; André vs. ANDRE). Cedillas are generally retained (e.g. FAÇADE rather than FACADE).

German[edit]

Letter[edit]

[capital letter]

  1. First-letter capitalization:
    1. In addition to proper nouns, common nouns, too, have the first letter capitalized.
    2. In fixed expressions adjectives have the first letter capitalized.
      • Blauer Planet, Schwarzes Brett, Weißes Haus
        Blue Planet (Earth), bulletin board, White House
    3. Nominalized adjectives are usually capitalized.
      • (et)was Gutes, die Schöne
        something good, the beautiful
    4. The pronouns Du (Deiner, Dir, Dich) and Dein can have the first letter capitalized when addressing someone in writing; this practice was deprecated in the 1996 spelling reform, but later partly undone, namely in case of letters.
    5. Capitalization distinguishes the polite second person form Sie, Ihnen, Ihr etc. from the third person plural sie, ihnen, ihr.
    6. Pronouns used in a majestic plural ("royal we": Wir) have the first letter capitalized.
    7. In modern spellings as prescribed by Duden, third person singular pronouns are capitalized in direct addresses and imperatives.
    8. (archaic) adjectives denoting a country or people once sometimes had the first letter capitalized.
  2. First- and second-letter capitalization:
    1. (archaic) In names and nouns referring to God.

Derived terms[edit]


Latin[edit]

Letter[edit]

[capital letter]

  1. (Ancient Latin) Only capital letters are used.
  2. (New Latin) In addition to proper nouns, sometimes common nouns, too, have the first letter capitalized.

Lojban[edit]

Letter[edit]

[capital letter]

  1. Used to mark stress.

Luxembourgish[edit]

Letter[edit]

[capital letter]

  1. In addition to proper nouns, common nouns, too, have the first letter capitalized.

Spanish[edit]

Letter[edit]

[capital letter]

  1. First-letter capitalization:
    1. In titles, the first word is always capitalized.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Letter[edit]

[capital letter]

  1. First-letter capitalization:
    1. Used in proper nouns used as adjectives: Việt Nam, châu Á, etc.
    2. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to large established groupings of people:
      1. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to nations and countries and their citizens:
        người Việt Nam, người Hoa Kỳ
        Vietnamese, American
      2. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to states, regions and cities and their inhabitants:
        người Quảng, người Bắc
        Cantonese, Northerner
      3. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to ethnic groups:
        người Việt, người Thái
        Vietnamese, Thai
      4. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to languages and their speakers:
        tiếng Việt, tiếng Anh, Quốc tế ngữ
        Vietnamese, English, Esperanto
      5. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to political parties and their members (especially when distinguished from people who hold similar views but aren't affiliated with a party):
        Cộng sản, Cộng hòa, Dân chủ
        Communist, Republican, Democratic
      6. Used in adjectives and nouns pertaining to religions and their adherents:
        Phật giáo, Công giáo, Tin Lành
        Buddhist, Catholic, Protestant
    3. Used in days of the week (Chủ nhật, thứ Hai) and months (tháng Mười).
    4. Used in the Can Chi (干支) (sexagenary cycle) days and years of the lunisolar calendar.
      Giáp Tý (甲子), Ất Sửu (乙丑), Bính Dần (丙寅)
      Yang Wood Rat, Yin Wood Ox, Yang Fire Tiger
    5. Used in words derived from nouns and adjectives that start with a capital letter.
      Việt hóa, Việt Cộng
      Vietnamization, Vietcong
    6. Used in the first word of a sentence or of quoted speech.
      Anh hỏi, "Tại sao em vẫn còn ở đây?"
      He asked, "Why are you still here?"
    7. Used in the first word and the first syllable of all other nouns in names of organizations:
      Trường Trung học phổ thông chuyên Khoa học Tự nhiên
      High School for Gifted Students of the Natural Sciences
    8. Used in the first word and the first syllable of all other words except classifiers and most conjunctions in titles:
      Từ điển Bách khoa Quân sự Việt Nam
      Vietnam Military Encyclopedia
    9. (dated) Used in the first word and all other words except classifiers and most conjunctions in titles.
    10. (obsolete) Used in all words in titles.
    11. (biology) Used in the names of taxonomic ranks above species:
      chi Hươu cao cổ
      Giraffa

References[edit]

  • Quy định tạm thời về viết hoa tên riêng trong sách giáo khoa [Temporary rules for capitalizing proper names in textbooks][1] (in Vietnamese), Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training, 2003-03-13