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Attested since 1584, ultimately from an Old Montagnais term. There are two competing theories: Ives Goddard's theory, accepted by more linguists today, that it derives from ayaškimew (“snowshoe-netter”), and the older theory, defended by John Steckley, that it derives from a term meaning "eater(s) of raw meat".
- The theory more widely accepted among linguists today is that of Ives Goddard, that it derives from ayaškimew (“snowshoe-netter”) (compare Montagnais assime·w (“she laces a snowshoe”), Cree asâm (“snowshoe”), Ojibwe aagimike (“she or he makes snowshoes”)), a term applied to the Mi'kmaq and apparently later transferred to the Labrador Inuit.
- An older theory derives it from a term meaning "eaters of raw meat"; compare Cree askamiciw (“she or he eats it raw”) (Inuit are referred to in some Cree texts as askipiw, "eats something raw"). John Steckley argues in favor of this theory because of its greater acceptance in native oral traditions, and because the Huron, historical allies and trading partners of the Montagnais who loan-translated many names, also denote the Inuit using terms (eg. Lorette Huron ok8ch iechronnon, Wyandot ok8chtronnon, both including -ok8ch- "to be raw") meaning "people of the raw", "people who eat something raw".
- A group of indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic, from Siberia, through Alaska and Northern Canada, to Greenland, including the Inuit and Yupik.
- Any of the languages of the Eskimo.
- Eskimo has come to be considered offensive, especially in Canada, because it was widely thought to stem from a Cree pejorative meaning “eaters of raw meat” (although both the Cree and Inuit ate raw meat).
- In Canada, it has been superseded by Inuit (for the peoples, and Inuvialuit for those in the Western Arctic). The term is still used worldwide by historians and archaeologists.
- In Alaska, indigenous Alaskans find this term too imprecise and prefer "Alaska Native", as "Eskimo" encompasses (and is the only encompassing term for) all the Arctic peoples including the Inuit Inupiat and the non-Inuit Yupik. However, Eskimo does not include the related Aleut people (Unangam).
- Greenland natives also call themselves Greenlanders or Kalaallit, and their language Greenlandic or Kalaallisut.
Eskimo (plural Eskimo or Eskimos)
- A member of any of the Eskimo peoples.
- Of or relating to the Eskimo peoples.
- In, of, or relating to the Eskimo languages.
- “Eskimo” in the Katherine Barker, editor, Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2nd edition, Don Mills, Ont.; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, →ISBN.
- “Eskimo” in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
- “Eskimo” in the The New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2005
- “Eskimo” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2018.
- “Eskimo” and “Origin of the name Eskimo” in Wikipedia
- ^ in the writings of Richard Hakluyt, in the (now obsolete) spelling Esquimawes (compare French Esquimaux (“Eskimos”))
- John Steckley, White Lies about the Inuit (2008)
- ^ Ives Goddard, "Synonymy", in Arctic, ed. David Damas, vol. 5 of Handbook of North American Indians (1984), ed. William C. Sturtevant, pages 5–7 (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution); cited in Lyle Campbell, American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America (1997), page 394 (New York: Oxford University Press)
- “Setting the Record Straight About Native Languages: What Does "Eskimo" Mean In Cree?”, in (Please provide the title of the work), Native-languages.org, accessed 2012-06-13
- “Eskimo”, in American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000, Bartleby, (Please provide a date or year)
- ^ Pamela R. Stern, Historical Dictionary of the Inuit
- Jose Mailhot, L'étymologie de «Esquimau» revue et corrigée, Etudes Inuit/Inuit Studies 2-2:59–70 (1978)
- Cree Mailing List Digest November 1997
- ^ Mark Israel, Eskimo (2012-06-13), archive (2012-04-03)
- Eskimo (person)
- the Eskimo language (group)
Eskimo m (plural Eskimos)
- an Eskimo
- eskimo (adjective)
- an Eskimo