mara

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See also: Mara, mára, mará, marą, māra, Māra, mära, and Mářa

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈmɑːɹə/
    • (file)

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Old Norse mara, from Proto-Germanic *marǭ, cognate with Old English mare or mære. Doublet of mare. See nightmare.

Noun[edit]

mara (plural maras)

  1. (folklore) A nightmare; a spectre or wraith-like creature in Germanic and particularly Scandinavian folklore; a female demon who torments people in sleep by crouching on their chests or stomachs, or by causing terrifying visions.
    • 1996, Catharina Raudvere, "Now you see her, now you don't: some notes on the conception of female shape-shifters in Scandinavian traditions", pages 41-55 in Sandra Billington & Miranda Green (editors) The Concept of the Goddess
      The corpus of related texts tells us that within rural society it was not improbable for your neighbour's envy of your fine cattle to take the form of a mara.
Translations[edit]
Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Mara failing to tempt Buddha from attaining Enlightenment, wall painting in a monastery in Penang, Malaysia

Borrowed from Sanskrit मार (māra).

Noun[edit]

mara (plural maras)

  1. (Buddhism) A type of god that prevents accomplishment or success.
    • 2011, Graham Woodhouse, Lobsang Gyatso, Tsongkhapa's Praise for Dependent Relativity, Wisdom Publications, page 20,
      Mara means demon, or demonic influence, that hinders the practice of virtue. It may be an external spirit or an aspect of our own imperfect condition. All hindrances on the path to liberation are subsumed under the four maras. The first mara is the mara of the aggregates. [] The second of the maras is the mara of the afflictions, which are the same as the afflictive obstructions. They are identified as a mara because they precipitate all harmful actions, from malicious gossip to murder. [] The third mara is Devaputra, literally "son of a god," an external troublemaker who specializes in interfering with beings who are endeavoring to achieve something positive. [] The last mara is the mara of death.
  2. (Buddhism) Any malicious or evil spirit.
    • 2002, Sarvananda Bluestone, The World Dream Book, page 73
      The mara is the spirit that causes illness, accidents, and mishaps. The only protection against it is another mara who befriends a person or a group. A mara who becomes friendly is called a gunik. This transformation occurs when a mara comes to a person in a dream and states a desire to be friendly. But there are deceitful maras who pretend to be friendly, yet will betray the person who trusts them.
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
Further reading[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From New World Spanish mará.

Noun[edit]

mara (plural maras)

  1. Any caviid rodent of genus Dolichotis, common in the Patagonian steppes of Argentina.
    • 1999, Mara, entry in Michael A. Mares (editor), Encyclopedia of Deserts, page 349,
      Maras have a white patch of fur on the rump that they flash when running, an adaptation they share with several species of deer and antelopes.
    • 2011, Terry A. Vaughan, James M. Ryan, & Nicholas J. Czaplewski, Mammalogy, 5th edition, page 228,
      Although only Dolichotis, the Patagonian mara, is strongly cursorial, all caviids have certain features typical of cursorial mammals [] .
    • 2013, R. L. Honeycutt, Chapter 3: Phylogenetics of Caviomorph Rodents and Genetic Perspectives on the Evolution of Sociality and Mating Systems in the Caviidae, José Roberto Moreira, Katia Maria P.M.B. Ferraz, Emilio A. Herrera, David W. Macdonald (editors), Capybara: Biology, Use and Conservation of an Exceptional Neotropical Species, page 70,
      Maras (Dolichotis patagonum) are cursorial and prefer open areas with low vegetation for breeding and more barren sites for construction of communal dens (Taber and Macdonald 1992; Baldi 2007).
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


'Are'are[edit]

Verb[edit]

mara

  1. be ashamed

References[edit]


Afar[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mára m

  1. (collective) people

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Marie-Claude Simeone-Senelle; Mohamed Hassan Kamil (Aug 2013) , “Gender, Number and Agreement in Afar (Cushitic language)”, in 43th Colloquium on African Languages and Linguistics[1], Leiden: Leiden University.

Baagandji[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Pama-Nyungan *mara.

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. hand

Balinese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

mara

  1. Romanization of ᬫᬭ
  2. Romanization of ᬫᬵᬭ

Bikol Central[edit]

Adjective[edit]

mará

  1. dry; parched

Derived terms[edit]

Terms derived from mara

Dieri[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Pama-Nyungan *mara.

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. hand

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From maro +‎ -a.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈmara/
  • Hyphenation: mar‧a
  • Rhymes: -ara

Adjective[edit]

mara (accusative singular maran, plural maraj, accusative plural marajn)

  1. sea, of or relating to the sea

Finnish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈmɑrɑ/, [ˈmɑrɑ]
  • Rhymes: -ɑrɑ
  • Syllabification: ma‧ra

Etymology 1[edit]

Painajainen ("Nightmare"; "Nachtmahr" in German), a painting of a mara, by Johann Heinrich Füssli, 1781

Borrowed to Western Finnish dialects from Swedish mara, which is a demon that sits on the chest of a sleeping person and causes bad dreams. This demon is known by similar names among Germanic peoples and lives in English nightmare, in Swedish mardröm (nightmare) and in German Nachtmahr (nightmare), among others.

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. (folklore) nightmare, mara (demon that causes bad dreams)
    Synonym: painajainen
Declension[edit]
Inflection of mara (Kotus type 9/kala, no gradation)
nominative mara marat
genitive maran marojen
partitive maraa maroja
illative maraan maroihin
singular plural
nominative mara marat
accusative nom. mara marat
gen. maran
genitive maran marojen
marainrare
partitive maraa maroja
inessive marassa maroissa
elative marasta maroista
illative maraan maroihin
adessive maralla maroilla
ablative maralta maroilta
allative maralle maroille
essive marana maroina
translative maraksi maroiksi
instructive maroin
abessive maratta maroitta
comitative maroineen
Possessive forms of mara (type kala)
possessor singular plural
1st person marani maramme
2nd person marasi maranne
3rd person maransa

Etymology 2[edit]

From Spanish mará.

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. mara (hare-like South American rodent of the family Dolichotis)
Declension[edit]
Inflection of mara (Kotus type 9/kala, no gradation)
nominative mara marat
genitive maran marojen
partitive maraa maroja
illative maraan maroihin
singular plural
nominative mara marat
accusative nom. mara marat
gen. maran
genitive maran marojen
marainrare
partitive maraa maroja
inessive marassa maroissa
elative marasta maroista
illative maraan maroihin
adessive maralla maroilla
ablative maralta maroilta
allative maralle maroille
essive marana maroina
translative maraksi maroiksi
instructive maroin
abessive maratta maroitta
comitative maroineen
Possessive forms of mara (type kala)
possessor singular plural
1st person marani maramme
2nd person marasi maranne
3rd person maransa

Anagrams[edit]


Gamilaraay[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Central New South Wales *mara, from Proto-Pama-Nyungan *mara.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. hand
  2. finger

Quotations[edit]

  • 1856, William Ridley, On the Kamilaroi Tribe of Australians and Their Dialect, in Journal of the Ethnological Society of London, volume 4:
    Hand . . . mārā
    Fingers . . mŭrră.
  • 1856, William Ridley, gurre kamilaroi, or Kamilaroi Sayings
    immanuel murra kawāni miedul, goe, “miēdūl waria.”
    Immanuel by hand took the girl, said “damsel arise”.
  • 1873, William Ridley, Australian Languages and Traditions, in The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, volume 2:
    Hand|murra
  • 1903, R. H. Mathews, Languages of the Kamilaroi and Other Aboriginal Tribes of New South Wales, in The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, volume 33:
    Hand .... ....|murra

References[edit]

  • Barry Alpher Proto-Pama-Nyungan etyma, in Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method, edited by Claire Bowern and Harold Koch (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2004)
  • Peter Austin, A Reference Dictionary of Gamilaraay, northern New South Wales (1993)

Guinea-Bissau Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese amarrar. Cognate with Kabuverdianu mára.

Verb[edit]

mara

  1. to tie

Indonesian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈma.ra]
  • Hyphenation: ma‧ra

Etymology 1[edit]

From Sanskrit मार (māra, slaughter, destruction).

Noun[edit]

mara (plural, first-person possessive maraku, second-person possessive maramu, third-person possessive maranya)

  1. calamity, danger

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Unknown

Verb[edit]

mara

  1. to go

Etymology 3[edit]

From Sanskrit कोट (koṭa, fort, shed, hut) +‎ मार (māra, killing, destroying).

Noun[edit]

mara (plural, first-person possessive maraku, second-person possessive maramu, third-person possessive maranya)

  1. Alternative spelling of kotamara (a kind of naval defensive structure).

Further reading[edit]


Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara f

  1. inflection of muir (sea):
    1. genitive singular
    2. plural

Conjunction[edit]

mara

  1. Cois Fharraige form of mura (if... not, unless)

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
mara mhara not applicable
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

  • "mara" in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “mara” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “mara” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

mara

  1. Rōmaji transcription of まら

Maltese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic اِمْرَأة(imraʾa, woman; wife). Formally, a backformation from the latter’s definite form اَلْمَرْأة(al-marʾa) as in most modern Arabic dialects.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara f (construct state mart, plural nisa)

  1. woman
  2. wife

Mangarevan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Polynesian *mala, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *malaŋ.

Verb[edit]

mara

  1. (stative) be unhappy, dispirited

Further reading[edit]


Mapudungun[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara (using Raguileo Alphabet)

  1. rabbit
  2. hare

References[edit]

  • Wixaleyiñ: Mapucezugun-wigkazugun pici hemvlcijka (Wixaleyiñ: Small Mapudungun-Spanish dictionary), Beretta, Marta; Cañumil, Dario; Cañumil, Tulio, 2008.

Martuthunira[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Ngayarda *mara, from Proto-Pama-Nyungan *mara.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. hand

References[edit]

  • Barry Alpher Proto-Pama-Nyungan etyma, in Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method, edited by Claire Bowern and Harold Koch (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2004)
  • Dench, Alan Charles. 1995. Martuthunira: A Language of the Pilbara Region of Western Australia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. Series C-125.

Ngiyambaa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Pama-Nyungan *mara.

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. hand

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara f

  1. definite singular of mare

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara f (definite singular mara, indefinite plural maror, definite plural marone)

  1. form removed with the spelling reform of 2012; superseded by mare
  2. definite singular of mare

Verb[edit]

mara (present tense marar, past tense mara, past participle mara, passive infinitive marast, present participle marande, imperative mar)

  1. Alternative form of mare

Anagrams[edit]


Nyunga[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Pama-Nyungan *mara.

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. (northern dialect) hand

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *maizô. Compare Old Frisian māra (West Frisian mear), Old Saxon mēro (Low German mehr), Dutch meer, Old High German mēro (German mehr), Old Norse meiri (Danish mere, Swedish mera), Gothic 𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌶𐌰 (maiza).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

māra

  1. more

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle English: more
  • Scots: mair

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *marǭ.

Noun[edit]

mara f (genitive mǫru)

  1. nightmare, incubus
Declension[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Norwegian Nynorsk: mare f
  • Norwegian Bokmål: mare m or f
  • Swedish: mara c

Etymology 2[edit]

Probably related to marr m (sea).

Verb[edit]

mara

  1. to be waterlogged, float low in the water
    marði þá undir þeim skipit
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. genitive plural of marr
  2. genitive plural of marr

References[edit]

  • mara in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

mara

  1. second-person singular imperative active of marati (to die)

Panyjima[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Ngayarda *mara, from Proto-Pama-Nyungan *mara.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. hand

References[edit]

  • Barry Alpher Proto-Pama-Nyungan etyma, in Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method, edited by Claire Bowern and Harold Koch (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2004)
  • Dench, Alan. 1991. ‘Panyjima’. R.M.W. Dixon, Barry J. Blake (eds.) The Handbook of Australian Languages, Volume 4. Melbourne: Oxford University Press Australia, 125–244.

Papiamentu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese amarrar and Spanish amarrar and Kabuverdianu mára.

The Portuguese word comes from Dutch aanmeren.

Verb[edit]

mara

  1. to tie

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *mara.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara f

  1. (literary) dream, nightmare
  2. (Slavic mythology) A creature that drinks the blood of sleeping people; wight.

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • mara in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • mara in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Adjective[edit]

mara (plural mara, comparable)

  1. (Brazil, slang) Clipping of maravilhoso.
    • Carmen Pimentel (quoting “Siba”), Comunidades virtuais, comunidades linguísticas in 2015, Idioma, n. 29, page 192:
      Hum 700 g a menos tá mara!
      Some 700 fewer grams would be great!
    • 2018, Valentina Schulz, O Diário da Valen: Confissões de um ano inesquecível, Editora Alto Astral, page 61:
      O importante é que a pizza estava mara e conseguimos estudar e jogar um pouco de Xbox (perdi feio, só pra constar).
      The important thing is that the pizza was great and we were able to study and play some Xbox (I lost badly, just so you know).
    • 2019, Wagner Fontoura, O Cozinheiro de Bangu, Nau Editora, page 144:
      Arthur, o negócio aqui tá mara!
      Arthur, things are awesome here!

Etymology 2[edit]

From Spanish mara.

Noun[edit]

mara f (plural maras)

  1. mara (Central American street gang)

Etymology 3[edit]

Verb[edit]

mara

  1. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present indicative of marar
  2. second-person singular (tu, sometimes used with você) affirmative imperative of marar

Rapa Nui[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Polynesian *mala, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *malaŋ.

Verb[edit]

mara

  1. to start rotting, going bad

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. lump, bruise (from a blow)

Further reading[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara f sg

  1. genitive singular of muir (sea, ocean)

Mutation[edit]

Scottish Gaelic mutation
Radical Lenition
mara mhara
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Spanish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Clipping of marabunta

Noun[edit]

mara f (plural maras)

  1. (colloquial, El Salvador) people in one's in-group (e.g. at work, at school, in one's soccer team, who may or may not be friends)
    Cariño, hoy en la noche saldré con la mara de la empresa.Honey, today at night I'll go out with the people from the company.
  2. (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico) criminal gang
    A mediados de 2012, se acordó una tregua entre las maras salvadoreñas y el gobierno local.In mid-2012, a truce was orchestrated between Salvadorian gangs and the local government.
    Synonym: pandilla

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara f (plural maras)

  1. Patagonian mara (Dolichotis australis)

Swahili[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic مَرَّة(marra)

Noun[edit]

mara (n class, plural mara)

  1. time (used to form adverbial numbers, as in "one time" (i.e. once))

Usage notes[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse mara, from Proto-Germanic *marǭ; cognate to Old English mare or mære.

Noun[edit]

mara c

  1. a mythological creature blamed for giving people nightmares
Declension[edit]
Declension of mara 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative mara maran maror marorna
Genitive maras marans marors marornas

Etymology 2[edit]

Contraction of maraton.

Noun[edit]

mara c

  1. short for maratonlopp; a marathon race
Declension[edit]
Declension of mara 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative mara maran maror marorna
Genitive maras marans marors marornas

Anagrams[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mara

  1. Nasal mutation of bara (bread).

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
bara fara mara unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Yámana[edit]

Verb[edit]

mara

  1. hear

Synonyms[edit]