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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



See *kʷis.

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.



  1. and
    *h₂ówis *h₁éḱwōskʷethe sheep and the horses (literally, “[the] sheep [the] horses-and”)
    Antonym: *-wē (or)
  2. Forms distributives from interrogatives.


  • Proto-Albanian: *dže
    • Albanian: dhe
  • Proto-Anatolian: *-ku[1]
  • Proto-Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: -եք (-ekʿ)
  • Proto-Celtic: *-kʷe (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *-hw (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *-kʷe
    • Ancient Greek: τε (te)
    • Mycenaean Greek: 𐀤 (qe /⁠-kʷe⁠/)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *-ča (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *-kʷe[2] (see there for further descendants)
  • Phrygian: κε (ke)
  • (perhaps) Proto-Albanian: *tśe[3]
    • Albanian: s- / -s (not)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *es-ke
    • Proto-Slavic: *(j)eš-če (yet, still) (possibly a compound of *h₁es- (to be) +‎ *-kʷe) (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 559-561
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 506
  3. ^ Demiraj, B. (1997), “s-, -s”, in Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: []] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7) (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 276
  • Wikander, Ola (2008) Ett träd med vida grenar: de indoeuropeiska språkens historia (in Swedish), Stockholm: Prisma, →ISBN