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э́то ‎(éto)

  1. demonstrative pronoun: this, it, that
    Мне э́то нра́вится!‎ ― Mne éto nrávitsja! ― I like it! or I like that!
  2. neuter form of этот: this; compare этот/эта/эти and тот/то/та/те
    Э́то яйцо́ — све́жее, а вот э́то — ту́хлое.‎ ― Éto jajcó — svéžeje, a vot éto — túxloje.This egg is fresh, and this one is rotten.


э́то ‎(éto)

  1. Used as subject: it (is), this (is), that (is), these (are), those (are).
    Э́тоучи́тель‎ ― Éto — učítelʹThis is the teacher.
    Э́тобрат и сестра́‎ ― Éto — brat i sestráThey are brother and sister.
    Э́то не молоко́, а кефи́р‎ ― Éto ne molokó, a kefírThis is not milk, but kefir.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used to connect subject and predicate as kind of topic or subject marker. (However, as opposed to actual topic markers such as ‎() in Japanese, ‘это’ may be omitted without changing the meaning or breaking the sentence structure.) It does not get translated into English.
  • Со́евое молоко́ — (э́то) напи́ток, полу́ченный из зёрен со́иSoy milk is a beverage produced from soybeans.
  • Note that all of the above examples are ellipses in which the actual verb (есть ‎(jestʹ) — is, суть ‎(sutʹ) — are) has been omitted, which is typical for Russian. Oftentimes, the omitted verb is replaced by an em dash.


э́то ‎(éto)

  1. uh, er, erm, umm; used in hesitant speech;
    Я, э́то, не купи́л ничего́‎ ― Ja, éto, ne kupíl ničevó ― I, er, I haven't bought anything.