होना

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Hindi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Hindi होना (honā), from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀪𑁄𑀤𑀺 (bhodi), from Sanskrit भवति (bhavati, to happen, to become), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰew- (to grow, become, come into being, appear). Cognate with Nepali हुनु (hunu), Punjabi ਹੋਣਾ (hoṇā), Gujarati હોવું (hovũ), Marathi होणे (hoṇe), Bengali হওয়া (hoya). Other Indo-European cognates include Persian بودن (budan), Russian быть (bytʹ), English be, Latin fui, Spanish fui.

Present indicative forms are inherited from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀅𑀢𑁆𑀣𑀺 (atthi), from Sanskrit अस्ति (asti, to be). Compare Marathi असणे (asṇe), Konkani आसप (āsap).

Past forms came either from Sanskrit स्था (sthā) or स्तभ् (stabh). Compare Gujarati થવું (thavũ, to become).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

होना (honā) (Urdu spelling ہونا) (transitive, intransitive)

  1. to be
    आपका नाम क्या है?āpkā nām kyā hai?What is your name?
    तुम ग़ुस्से हो क्या?tum ġusse ho kyā?Are you angry?
    खाना बहुत बुरा हैkhānā bahut burā hai.The food is very bad.
  2. to become
    वह बहुत ग़ुस्सा हुआvah bahut ġussā huā.He became angry.
    Synonyms: हो जाना (ho jānā)
  3. to exist
    आस्तिक कहते है कि भगवान है
    āstik kahte hai ki bhagvān hai.
    Theists believe that God exists.
  4. to occur, happen
    घर में एक मुसीबत हुइ हैghar mẽ ek musībat hui hai.A disaster has occurred at home.
    क्या हुआ?kyā huā?What happened?
  5. to result, have an effect
    अगर तू नहीं जीतती तो क्या हुआ?
    agar tū nahī̃ jīttī to kyā huā?
    What does it matter if you didn't win?
    Synonyms: फ़रक़ पड़ना (faraq paṛnā)
  6. to be born
    एक बच्चा हुआek baccā huā.A child was born.
    Synonyms: पैदा होना (paidā honā), जन्म लेना (janma lenā)
  7. to pass by, elapse
    दो साल हुए है जबसे मैंने नौकरी शुरू की।
    do sāl hue hai jabse mainne naukrī śurū kī.
    Two years have elapsed since I started (my) job.
  8. (with instrumental-case subject) to be done, committed
    मुझसे एक ग़लती हो गई है।mujhse ek ġaltī ho gaī hai.I have made a mistake. (literally, “A mistake has been committed by me.”)
  9. a tense auxiliary
    मैं खा रहा हूँma͠i khā rahā hū̃.I am eating.
    वह हवाईजहाज़ को देख रहा था
    vah havāījhāz ko dekh rahā thā.
    He was watching the airplane.
  10. a modal auxiliary
    1. indicates the presumptive (a kind of irrealis) mood
      उसने नाश्ता खाया होगाusne nāśtā khāyā hogā.He probably ate breakfast.
    2. to have to, must
      मैं आज पार्टी पे नहीं आ पाऊंगा, मुझे काम करना है
      ma͠i āj pārṭī pe nahī̃ ā pāūṅgā, mujhe kām karnā hai.
      I can't go the party today, I have to do work.
  11. a conjunct verb turning any noun or adjective into a verb
    खड़ा होनाkhaṛā honāto stand up
    बड़ा होनाbaṛā honāto grow up
    कूल होनाkūl honāto be cool
    परेशान होनाpareśān honāto be worried, anxious

Conjugation[edit]

Conjugation of होना
Infinitive forms of होना
infinitive direct होना
indirect होने
Imperative forms of होना
singular तू हो
singular or plural तुम हो
आप हूजिए
Other non-aspectual forms of होना
conjunctive होकर
agentive / prospective होनेवाला, होनेवाली


Conjugation of होना with masculine forms
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
मैं (ma͠i) तू (tū) ये (ye) हम (ham) तुम (tum) ये (ye)
indicative present हूँ (hū̃) है (hai) है (hai) हैं (ha͠i) हो (ho) हैं (ha͠i)
past imperfect था (thā) था (thā) था (thā) थे (the) थे (the) थे (the)
preterite हुआ (huā) हुआ (huā) हुआ (huā) हुए (hue) हुए (hue) हुए (hue)
future हूँगा (hū̃ṅgā) होगा (hogā) होगा (hogā) होंगे (hõṅge) होगे (hoge) होंगे (hõṅge)
Conjugation of होना with feminine forms
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
मैं (ma͠i) तू (tū) ये (ye) हम (ham) तुम (tum) ये (ye)
indicative present हूँ (hū̃) है (hai) है (hai) हैं (ha͠i) हो (ho) हैं (ha͠i)
past imperfect थी (thī) थी (thī) थी (thī) थीं (thī̃) थीं (thī̃) थीं (thī̃)
preterite हुई (huī) हुई (huī) हुई (huī) हुईं (huī̃) हुईं (huī̃) हुईं (huī̃)
future हूँगी (hū̃ṅgī) होगी (hogī) होगी (hogī) होंगी (hõṅgī) होगी (hogī) होंगी (hõṅgī)

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Bahri, Hardev (1989), “होना”, in Siksarthi Hindi-Angrejhi Sabdakosa [Learners' Hindi-English Dictionary], Delhi: Rajpal & Sons
  • Yamuna Kachru (2006) Hindi (London African and Oriental language library; 12)[1], John Benjamins Publishing, ISBN 9789027238122
  • Caturvedi, Mahendra; Bhola Nath Tiwari (1970), “होना”, in A practical Hindi-English dictionary, Delhi: National Publishing House
  • Syamasundara Dasa (1965-1975), “होना”, in Hindi Sabdasagara [Comprehensive Hindi Dictionary] (in Hindi), Kashi [Varanasi]: Nagari Pracarini Sabha
  • Platts, John T. (1884), “होना”, in A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & co.

Old Hindi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Verb[edit]

होना (honā)

  1. to be
    • Kabir 76.0
      मैं सबनन मैं अर मैं न हूँ सब।
      maiṃ sabanana maiṃ ara maiṃ na hūm̐ saba.
      I am present in all, I am not this all.

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Jaroslav Strnad (2013) Morphology and Syntax of Old Hindī : Edition and Analysis of One Hundred Kabīr Vānī Poems From Rājasthān (Brill's Indological Library; 45), Leiden, OCLC 853683653