Jump to navigation Jump to search
From Ashokan Prakrit 𑀢𑀼𑀨𑁂 (tuphe), from Sanskrit युष्मान् (yuṣmān). Cognates include Hindi तुम (tum) and Gujarati તમે (tame).
- Anoop Chandra Chandola (1966) A Synthatic Sketch of Garhwali, University of Chicago press (PhD thesis), page 43
Inherited from Sauraseni Apabhramsa तुम्हि, from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀢𑀼𑀫𑁆𑀳𑁂 (tumhe), from Sanskrit युष्मान् (yuṣmān, “you”, acc. pl.) adopting the initial sounds of त्वम् (tvám, “you”, nom. sg.).
तुम • (tum) (Urdu spelling تم)
- तुम (tum) is the mid level formal way of expressing "you" in Hindi and is used when addressing those of equal social status or those one has a close enough relationship with to justify the reduced formality. Because the less formal forms could offend others, आप (āp) is the safest way to express "you" unless there is reason to be less formal.
- Because तुम (tum) is grammatically plural (adjectives and verbs etc affected by it take their plural forms) even when there is only one person being referred to, the term तुम लोग (tum log) (literally: you people) can be used to specify that more than one person is being referred to.
Pronoun declension of तुम
- ^ Oberlies, Thomas (2005) A Historical Grammar of Hindi, Grazer Vergleichende Arbeiten, →ISBN, page 20
- ^ Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “yuṣmad”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press
- Garhwali terms inherited from Ashokan Prakrit
- Garhwali terms derived from Ashokan Prakrit
- Garhwali terms inherited from Sanskrit
- Garhwali terms derived from Sanskrit
- Garhwali terms with IPA pronunciation
- Garhwali lemmas
- Garhwali pronouns
- Garhwali personal pronouns
- Hindi terms inherited from Sauraseni Apabhramsa
- Hindi terms derived from Sauraseni Apabhramsa
- Hindi terms inherited from Sauraseni Prakrit
- Hindi terms derived from Sauraseni Prakrit
- Hindi terms inherited from Sanskrit
- Hindi terms derived from Sanskrit
- Hindi terms with IPA pronunciation
- Hindi terms with audio links
- Hindi lemmas
- Hindi pronouns