तुम

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Hindi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit त्वम् ‎(tvám), from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

तुम ‎(tum) ‎(Urdu spelling تم)

  1. you, ye (mid level formality and grammatically plural)

Declension[edit]

Declension of तुम
direct तुम (tum)
indirect तुम (tum)
ergative तुमने (tumne)
genitive तुम्हारा (tumhārā)
dative तुम्हें (tumhẽ), तुमको (tumko)

Usage notes[edit]

  • तुम ‎(tum) is the mid level formal way of expressing "you" in Hindi and is used when addressing those of equal social status or those one has a close enough relationship with to justify the reduced formality. Because the less formal forms could offend others, आप ‎(āp) is the safest way to express "you" unless there is reason to be less formal.
  • Because तुम ‎(tum) is grammatically plural (adjectives and verbs etc affected by it take their plural forms) even when there is only one person being referred to, the term तुम लोग ‎(tum log) (literally: you people) can be used to specify that more than one person is being referred to.

See also[edit]

  • आप ‎(āp) (highest formality, grammatically plural)
  • तू ‎() (complete lack of human formality, grammatically singular)