आप

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Hindi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀅𑀧𑁆𑀧𑀸 (appā), from Sanskrit आत्मन् (ātmán, soul, spirit; self), from Proto-Indo-Aryan *HáHtmā, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *HáHtmā, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁éh₁t-mō ~ *h₁h₁t-m̥nés (beath, spirit), from *h₁eh₁t- (to breathe) +‎ *-mō. Cognate with Gujarati આપું (āpũ), Nepali आंत (ānta), Marathi आप (āp), Bengali আপনি (apni), Kamkata-viri āmu.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Delhi Hindi) IPA(key): /ɑːp/, [äːp]

Pronoun[edit]

आप (āp) (Urdu spelling آپ‎)

  1. you (formal, polite and grammatically plural)
    क्या आपको मेरी मदद की ज़रूरत है?
    kyā āpko merī madad kī zarūrat hai?
    Do you need my help?
    आपका दिन कैसा था पिताजी?āpkā din kaisā thā pitājī?How was your day, father?
  2. (in some phrases, now obsolete) self
    अपने आपapne āponeself
    अपनाapnāone's own

Usage notes[edit]

  • आप (āp) is the most formal way of expressing "you" in Hindi and is used when addressing elders or those higher in social status. Because less formal forms could offend others, आप (āp) is the safest way to express "you" unless there is reason to be less formal.
  • Because आप (āp) is grammatically plural (adjectives and verbs etc affected by it take their plural forms) even when there is only one person being referred to, the term आप लोग (āp log) (literally: you people) can be used to specify that more than one person is being referred to because of T-V distinction.

Declension[edit]

Declension of आप
direct आप (āp)
indirect आप (āp)
ergative आपने (āpne)
genitive आपका (āpkā)
dative आपको (āpko)

See also[edit]

See also[edit]

  • तुम (tum) (mid level formality, grammatically plural)
  • तू () (complete lack of human formality, grammatically singular)

References[edit]


Old Marathi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit आपः (āpaḥ).

Noun[edit]

आप (āpam (Modi 𑘁𑘢)

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Tulpule, Shankar Gopal; Feldhaus, Anne, “आप”, in A Dictionary of Old Marathi, Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, 1999.

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

आप ?

  1. water