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See also: अप, अपि, and अपी


Alternative scripts[edit]


Inherited from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hā́ps, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ep-.

Cognate with Avestan 𐬀𐬞 (ap), Old Persian 𐎠𐎱𐎡𐎹𐎠 (a-p-i-y-a /⁠apiyā⁠/, into the water), Tocharian B āp (water), Hittite 𒄩𒉺𒀀 (ḫa-pa-a, towards the river), Persian آب (âb), Latin amnis (river).



अप् (áp) stemf

  1. water (also personified as a deity)
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:जल
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 10.9.1:
      आपो॒ हि ष्ठा म॑यो॒भुव॒स्ता न॑ ऊ॒र्जे द॑धातन।
      म॒हे रणा॑य॒ चक्ष॑से॥
      ā́po hí ṣṭhā́ mayobhúvastā́ na ūrjé dadhātana.
      mahé ráṇāya cákṣase.
      Ye, Waters, are beneficent: so help ye us to energy
      That we may look on great delight.
  2. (astronomy) the star δ Virginis in Virgo

Usage notes[edit]

In Vedic Sanskrit, used both in singular and in plural; in Classical Sanskrit, only in plural.


Declension of अप्
Nom. sg.
Gen. sg.
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative आपः (āpaḥ)
Vocative आपः (āpaḥ)
Accusative अपः (apaḥ)
Instrumental अपा (apā) अद्भिः (adbhiḥ)
Dative अद्भ्यः (adbhyaḥ)
Ablative अपः (apaḥ) अद्भ्यः (adbhyaḥ)
Genitive अपाम् (apām)
Locative अप्सु (apsu)

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


  • Dardic:
    • Dameli: [script needed] (âu)
    • Gawar-Bati: [script needed] (aw)
  • Pali: āpa
  • Old Marathi: आप (āpa) (learned)

Further reading[edit]