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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. water, body of water


  • Tocharian: *āp (water, river)
    • Tocharian A: āp
    • Tocharian B: āp

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₂ṓp-s ~ *h₂óp-s
    • Indo-Iranian: *Hā́pš (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂ép-h₃ō ~ *h₂p-h₃nés
    • Anatolian: [Term?] (river)
      • Hittite: 𒄩𒉺𒀸 (ḫa-pa-aš, river,
      • Luwian: [script needed] (hāpa-), [script needed] (hāpi-), [script needed] (hāpinna/i-)
      • Lycian: 𐊜𐊂𐊀 (χba), 𐊜𐊂𐊀𐊆 (χbai, to irrigate)
      • Palaic: [script needed] (hāpna)
    • Celtic: *abū (river) (see there for further descendants)
    • *h₂ph₃n-éh₂
      • Albanian: *abnā
        • Albanian: amë (spring, source of spring)
    • *h₂ph₃n-í-s
  • *h₂ep-sru-
Unsorted formations
  • Balto-Slavic: [Term?]
    • Latvian: upe (brook, river)
    • Lithuanian: ùpė (brook, river)
    • Old Prussian: ape (< *apiā̃)
    • Slavic: [Term?]
  • Germanic: *apô (water sprite” → “ape, monkey) (possibly) (see there for further descendants)