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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. water, body of water

See also[edit]


  • Proto-Tocharian: *āp (water, river)
    • Tocharian A: āp
    • Tocharian B: āp

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₂ṓp-s ~ *h₂óp-s
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Hā́ps (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂ép-h₃ō ~ *h₂p-h₃nés
    • Proto-Anatolian: [Term?] (river)
    • Proto-Celtic: *abū (river) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *apô (water sprite” → “ape, monkey) (possibly) (see there for further descendants)
    • *h₂ph₃n-éh₂
      • Proto-Albanian: *abnā
        • Albanian: amë (spring, source of spring)
    • *h₂ph₃n-í-s
  • *h₂ep-sru-
  • *h₂ēp-eh₂
Unsorted formations
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Latvian: upe (brook, river)
    • Lithuanian: ùpė (brook, river)
    • Old Prussian: ape (< *apiā̃)
    • Proto-Slavic: