Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/péh₂wr̥

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Often considered to contain the substantifying suffix *-wr̥.

Noun[edit]

*péh₂wr̥ n[1]

  1. fire
    Synonyms: *h₁n̥gʷnís, *h₂eh₁ter-
  2. spelt (grain)[2][3]

Usage notes[edit]

Two main terms for “fire” are reconstructible for Proto-Indo-European: *h₁n̥gʷnis and *péh₂wr̥. They are usually considered in semantic opposition. The term *h₁n̥gʷnis is usually masculine and refers to fire as something animate and active (compare Agni, the most prominent Old Indic deity), whereas the term *péh₂wr̥ is neuter and refers to fire as something inanimate and passive, i.e. as a substance.

Inflection[edit]

Athematic, proterokinetic
singular collective
nominative *péh₂wr̥ *péh₂wōr
genitive *ph₂wéns *ph₂unés
singular dual plural collective
nominative *péh₂wr̥ *péh₂wōr
vocative *péh₂wr̥ *péh₂wōr
accusative *péh₂wr̥ *péh₂wōr
genitive *ph₂wéns *ph₂unés
ablative *ph₂wéns *ph₂unés
dative *ph₂wéney *ph₂unéy
locative *ph₂wén, *ph₂wéni *ph₂wén, *ph₂wéni
instrumental *ph₂wénh₁ *ph₂unéh₁

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Proto-Anatolian: *páHʷr̥ (see there for further descendants)
  • Armenian:
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Latvian: pūrs (winter wheat) but more often pūr̨i in analogy to kvieši, rudzi, mieži
    • Lithuanian: pū̃ras (one corn of winter-wheat; used in the plural for winter-wheat)
    • Old Prussian: panno (fire), pure (bromegrass)
    • Proto-Slavic: *pyrь (cinder; couch grass; spelt) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Finnic: *panu (fire) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *fōr (from *ph₂wṓr < *péh₂wōr) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *pāwər?
  • Proto-Italic: *pur (see there for further descendants)
  • Tocharian:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ Gamkrelidze, Th. V.; Ivanov, V. V. (1995) Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans. A Reconstruction and Historical Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture. Part I: The Text (Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs; 80), Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pages 566–567 – he gives pʰūr-
  3. ^ Трубачёв, Олег Николаевич (a. 2002) Этногенез и культура древнейших славян (in Russian), Moscow: Наука, published 2003, →ISBN, pages 232–233 – he gives pūr-, but according to him it is the same word as the one for fire because spelt required drying by the fire.

Further reading[edit]