kell

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See also: Kell

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /kɛl/
  • Rhymes: -ɛl
  • (file)

Etymology 1[edit]

Compare caul.

Noun[edit]

kell (plural kells)

  1. (obsolete) The caul.
  2. (obsolete, figurative) That which covers or envelops, like a caul; a net; a fold; a film.
  3. (obsolete) The cocoon or chrysalis of an insect.

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

kell (plural kells)

  1. A kiln.

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

kell (uncountable)

  1. Alternative spelling of kale (broth)

Part or all of this entry has been imported from the 1913 edition of Webster’s Dictionary, which is now free of copyright and hence in the public domain. The imported definitions may be significantly out of date, and any more recent senses may be completely missing.
(See the entry for “kell”, in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: G. & C. Merriam, 1913, →OCLC.)

Breton[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic [Term?], borrowed through Vulgar Latin from Latin cōleus (testicle) (compare Cornish kell, Welsh caill), ultimately from Ancient Greek κολεός (koleós).

Noun[edit]

kell f (plural kelloù, dual divgell)

  1. testicle

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin cella (compare Old Irish cell).

Noun[edit]

kell f (plural kelloù or killi)

  1. cell (of prisoner, monk):

Mutation[edit]

Cornish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [kɛlː]
  • (Revived Late Cornish) IPA(key): [kɛlʰ]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic [Term?], borrowed through Vulgar Latin from Latin cōleus (testicle) (compare Breton kell, Welsh caill), ultimately from Ancient Greek κολεός (koleós).

Noun[edit]

kell f (dual diwgell, plural kellow or kellyow)

  1. testicle

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin cella (compare Old Irish cell).

Noun[edit]

kell f (plural kellow or kellyow)

  1. cell

Mutation[edit]

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *kellä, borrowed from Proto-Germanic *skellǭ (bell).

Noun[edit]

kell (genitive kella, partitive kella)

  1. clock
  2. bell
  3. (in the plural, colloquial) balls, testicles

Declension[edit]

Declension of kell (ÕS type 22i/külm, length gradation)
singular plural
nominative kell kellad
accusative nom.
gen. kella
genitive kellade
partitive kella kelli
kellasid
illative kella
kellasse
kelladesse
kellisse
inessive kellas kellades
kellis
elative kellast kelladest
kellist
allative kellale kelladele
kellile
adessive kellal kelladel
kellil
ablative kellalt kelladelt
kellilt
translative kellaks kelladeks
kelliks
terminative kellani kelladeni
essive kellana kelladena
abessive kellata kelladeta
comitative kellaga kelladega

Derived terms[edit]

Hungarian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finno-Ugric *kelke- (to be necessary, need to, must, be obligatory). [1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

kell

  1. (auxiliary with a verb in the infinitive) must, need to, have to
    Synonyms: muszáj, kénytelen
    Ezt látnod kell.You have to / need to / must see it.
  2. to be needed
    Synonym: szüksége van
    Kell nekem az a ház.I need that house.

Usage notes[edit]

The subject of certain verbs is not someone who acts but a stimulus that prompts sensory or emotional feelings, like when things interest someone, matter to someone, please someone or appeal to someone. In these cases, the experiencer can take the accusative (e.g. interest) or the dative (e.g. appeal). The experiencer is expressed with the dative in the case of hiányzik (to be missing or missed by someone), ízlik (to taste good), kell (to be needed, necessary, or required), tetszik (to be appealing), and van/megvan (to be had, to be owned by someone).
If the experiencer is expressed with the accusative, third-person objects (him, her, it, or them) are considered definite, while first- and second-person objects (me, us, and you), indefinite. For example, the verb érdekel can take the definite form érdekli őt (he/she is interested, literally it interests him/her) or the indefinite form érdekel engem/​téged/​minket (I am, you are, we are interested, literally it interests me, you, us). The form érdekellek means “you are interested in me” (literally, “I interest you”). — Similar verbs include zavar (to be bothered by) and izgat (to be intrigued by).[3]

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Expressions

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Entry #281 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics.
  2. ^ kell in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (‘Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)
  3. ^ See also Verbs and adjectives that behave differently (in English vs. in Hungarian), Által (’By’), on the past participles derived from such verbs, On verbs of emotion, with special regard to their aspectual properties, especially the chart on page 3. In addition, see Thematic relation and Theta role in Wikipedia.

Further reading[edit]

  • kell in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Maltese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Univerbation of kien (was) +‎ l- (to).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

kell- (imperfect ikoll)

  1. to belong to; expresses English have
    Kelli ktieb.
    I had a book.
    (literally, “It was to me a book.”)
    Ir-raġel kellu ktieb.
    The man had a book.
    (literally, “The man it was to him a book.”)
  2. (with following verb) to be obligatory for; to be necessary for; expresses English have to, must
    Kelli nikteb ktieb.
    I had to write a book.
    (literally, “It was to me (that) I write a book.”)

Usage notes[edit]

  • The perfect of this verb expresses the past, while the imperfect expresses future and subjunctive senses. The present is expressed by forms of għand. This is equivalent to the situation in the underlying kien (to be), where the present is expressed (if expressed at all) by the personal pronouns.
  • The verbal inflection is that of a defective verb that inflects only for tense (imperfect ikoll), but not for person or number. They who “have” something, or “have to do” something, are given with the appropriate personal suffixes (as above: kelli = it was to me = I had; kellu = it was to him = he had; etc.).
  • Syntactically, it is not sound to define either of the two elements (possessor or thing possessed) as the object of the phrase. Rather the construction is that which in Arabic and Greek grammar is called a nominativus pendens: The possessor is prepositioned and referred back to with a personal suffix, while the thing possessed is the grammatical subject. This construction is generally popular in Maltese; for example: Ir-raġel qatluh. (They killed the man., literally The man, they killed him.).

Inflection[edit]

Inflected forms of kell
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person kelli kellna
2nd person kellek kellkom
3rd person kellu kellha kellhom

See also[edit]

Old Norse[edit]

Verb[edit]

kell

  1. third-person singular present indicative of kala