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(index pa)




  1. Used alone, can be translated as obligation, force, necessity or compulsion.
  2. Used most often in the expression olla pakko ( + first infinitive of the verb), which can be translated into English as must, have to, be obliged to, be forced to, be compelled to. The one who is compelled is put in the genitive case (grammatically, pakko is the subject of the sentence) and the verb is always in the third-person singular (present on, past oli, present perfect on ollut, past perfect oli ollut).
    • Minun on pakko ostaa auto. = I have to buy a car.
    • Onko sinun pakko? = Do you have to?
  3. As a specifier in a compound term used to express compulsion or influence of an external force.
    pakkohuutokauppa = compulsory sale
    pakkokeino = coercion
    pakkolasku = forced landing
    pakkolunastus = expropriation
    pakkoluovutus = expropriation
    pakkomielle = obsession
    pakkopaita = straitjacket
    pakkoruotsi = mandatory Swedish
    pakkotoimenpide = act of force
    pakkotyö = forced labour


Inflection of pakko (Kotus type 1/valo, kk-k gradation)
nominative pakko pakot
genitive pakon pakkojen
partitive pakkoa pakkoja
illative pakkoon pakkoihin
singular plural
nominative pakko pakot
accusative nom. pakko pakot
gen. pakon
genitive pakon pakkojen
partitive pakkoa pakkoja
inessive pakossa pakoissa
elative pakosta pakoista
illative pakkoon pakkoihin
adessive pakolla pakoilla
ablative pakolta pakoilta
allative pakolle pakoille
essive pakkona pakkoina
translative pakoksi pakoiksi
instructive pakoin
abessive pakotta pakoitta
comitative pakkoineen

Derived terms[edit]