lume

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See also: lumë

Aromanian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin lūmen. See figurative meaning as the "light of life". Compare Daco-Romanian lume.

Noun[edit]

lume

  1. people
  2. world
  3. humanity, mankind

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Estonian[edit]

Noun[edit]

lume

  1. Genitive singular form of lumi.

Finnish[edit]

Noun[edit]

lume

  1. illusion

Declension[edit]

Inflection of lume (Kotus type 48/hame, no gradation)
nominative lume lumeet
genitive lumeen lumeiden
lumeitten
partitive lumetta lumeita
illative lumeeseen lumeisiin
lumeihin
singular plural
nominative lume lumeet
accusative nom. lume lumeet
gen. lumeen
genitive lumeen lumeiden
lumeitten
partitive lumetta lumeita
inessive lumeessa lumeissa
elative lumeesta lumeista
illative lumeeseen lumeisiin
lumeihin
adessive lumeella lumeilla
ablative lumeelta lumeilta
allative lumeelle lumeille
essive lumeena lumeina
translative lumeeksi lumeiksi
instructive lumein
abessive lumeetta lumeitta
comitative lumeineen

Compounds[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Latin lūmen, plural lumina taken as feminine in Proto-Western-Romance. See also Spanish lumbre.

Noun[edit]

lume f (plural lumes)

  1. (obsolete) light, lamp
    Au clair de la lune, mon ami Pierrot, prête-moi ta lume pour écrire un mot.
    By the light of the moon, my friend Pierrot, lend me your lamp to write a word.

Usage notes[edit]

This word is commonly sung as plume (quill) in this verse, but this is incongruous with "my candle is dead, I have no more fire", which indicates that the writer, Lubin, needs light to write by, not a pen to write with.

Further reading[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin lūmen. Compare Portuguese lume, Asturian llume, Spanish lumbre.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

lume m (plural lumes)

  1. flame, fire

Synonyms[edit]


Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin lūmen, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *léwksmn̥, derived from the root *lewk- (bright).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈlu.me/, [ˈl̺uːme]
  • Stress: lùme
  • Hyphenation: lu‧me

Noun[edit]

lume m (plural lumi)

  1. A light source
    • 1353, Giovanni Boccaccio, “Seconda giornata, Novella VII [Second Day, 7th Story]”, in Decamerone [Decameron][1] (in Italian), Tommaso Hedlin, published 1527, page 50:
      Pericone non diede indugio a ſeguitarla, ma ſpento ogni lume preſtamente da laltra parte le ſi coricò al lato []
      Pericone was not slow to follow her, but, putting out every light, promptly hid himself beside her []
    • 1472, Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia: Purgatorio [The Divine Comedy: Purgatory] (paperback, in Italian), Bompiani, published 2001, Canto XXII, lines 67–69, page 336:
      Facesti come quei che va di notte, ¶ che porta il lume dietro e sé non giova, ¶ ma dopo sé fa le persone dotte, []
      Thou didst as he who walketh in the night, ¶ who bears his light behind, which helps him not, ¶ but wary makes the persons after him, []
    1. (dated) A non-electrical light source (e.g. a candle or an oil lamp)
      • 1840, Alessandro Manzoni, chapter XXXIII, in I promessi sposi[2] (in Italian), Tip. Guglielmini e Redaelli, page 626:
        [] C’era una vernaccia!... Ma, con una buona dormita, tutto se ne va. Ho un gran sonno... Levami un po’ quel lume dinanzi, che m’accieca... mi dà una noia...!”
        [] The wine was so fine!... With a good sleep all will be well again. I am overcome by sleep... Get that lamp away from before me, it's blinding me... it troubles me so...!”
    2. (rare) An electrical light source.
  2. (by extension, poetic) star
    • 1472, Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia: Paradiso [The Divine Comedy: Paradise] (paperback), Le Monnier, published 2002, Canto II, lines 64–66, page 39:
      La spera ottava vi dimostra molti ¶ lumi, li quali e nel quale e nel quanto ¶ notar si posson di diversi volti.
      Lights many the eighth sphere displays to you ¶ which in their quality and quantity ¶ may noted be of aspects different.
    • 1374, Francesco Petrarca, “Tacer non posso, et temo non adopre [I can’t be silent, yet I fear to use]”, in Il Canzoniere[3] (in Italian), Florence: Andrea Bettini, published 1858, page 349:
      Fra tanti amici lumi, ¶ una nube lontana mi dispiacque; ¶ la qual temo che 'n pianto si risolve, []
      Among so many friendly stars, ¶ one distant cloud displeased me: ¶ which I fear will melt away in tears
    • Synonyms: stella, astro
    1. (figuratively, poetic) God
      • 1472, Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia: Purgatorio [The Divine Comedy: Purgatory] (paperback, in Italian), Bompiani, published 2001, Canto XIII, lines 85–87, page 195:
        Volsimi a loro e: «O gente sicura», ¶ incominciai, «di veder l'alto lume ¶ che 'l disio vostro solo ha in cura [] »
        To them I turned me, and, "O people, certain," ¶ began I, "of beholding the high light, ¶ which your desire has solely in its care, []
    2. (figuratively, by extension, poetic) A blessed soul or entity.
      • 1472, Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia: Paradiso [The Divine Comedy: Paradise] (paperback), Le Monnier, published 2002, Canto X, lines 71–73, page 179:
        si trovan molte gioie care e belle ¶ tanto che non si posson trar del regno; ¶ e 'l canto di quei lumi era di quelle;
        Are many jewels found, so fair and precious ¶ they cannot be transported from the realm; ¶ and of them was the singing of those lights;
    3. (figuratively, by extension, literary, poetic) A notable person within a specific field or discipline.
      • 16th century, Annibale Caro, transl., Eneide [Aeneid][4], Florence: Leonardo Ciardetti, translation of Aeneis by Virgil, published 1827, Libro I, page 102:
        Cadde Riféo, ch'era ne' Teucri un lume ¶ di bontà, di giustizia e d'equitate
        Ripheus fell, who was a light among the Teucrians ¶ for goodness, justice and equity
      • 1472, Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia: Inferno [The Divine Comedy: Hell] (paperback, in Italian), 12th edition, Le Monnier, published 1994, Canto I, lines 82–84, page 13:
        «O de li altri poeti onore e lume, ¶ vagliami 'l lungo studio e 'l grande amore ¶ che m'ha fatto cercar lo tuo volume.»
        "O, of the other poets honour and light, ¶ avail me the long study and great love ¶ that have impelled me to explore thy volume!
      • c. 1527, Francesco Berni, Orlando Innamorato [Orlando in Love][5] (in Italian), Milano: Società Tipografica de' Classici Italiani, published 1828, Canto XIII, page 37:
        A que' tre che tu, Fiorenza, onori ¶ eterni lumi della lingua nostra, []
        To those three that you, Florence, honour, ¶ eternal lights of our own language []
  3. light, specifically:
    1. (archaic, literary) (natural) light
      • 1472, Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia: Purgatorio [The Divine Comedy: Purgatory] (paperback, in Italian), Bompiani, published 2001, Canto I, lines 37–39, page 10:
        Li raggi delle quattro luci sante ¶ fregiavan sì la sua faccia di lume ¶ ch'i' 'l vedea come 'l sol fosse davante.
        The rays of the four consecrated stars ¶ did so adorn his countenance with light, ¶ that him I saw as were the sun before him.
      • 1909, Giovanni Pascoli, “La capinera [The Blackcap]”, in Nuovi poemetti[6] (in Italian), 4th edition, Bologna: Nicola Zanichelli, published 1918, lines 7–9, page 29:
        Il cinguettìo, così tra lume e scuro, ¶ cessò d’un tratto. Era comparso il sole. ¶ Sparì ciascuno nel bel giorno puro.
        The chirping, between light and darkness ¶ ceased suddenly. The Sun had risen. ¶ They all disappeared into the pure day.
      • Synonyms: luce
    2. (dated) (artificial) light, (non-electrical)
  4. (painting) The manner in which the light strikes a picture; that part of a picture which represents those objects upon which the light is supposed to fall
  5. (figuratively) sight (sense)
    • 1516, Ludovico Ariosto, Orlando Furioso [Raging Roland][7] (in Italian), Venice: Printed by Gabriel Giolito, published 1551, Canto XLIII, page 205:
      e facea alcun effetto ſopr'humano; ¶ dar lume a ciechi, e tornar morti a vita; ¶ fermare il uento ad un ſegno di croce ¶ e far tranquillo il mar, quand'è piu atroce.
      [a hermit] who had done superhuman deeds; ¶ regiving sight to the blind, and restoring the dead to life; ¶ hushing the winds with a sign of the cross ¶ and pacifying the sea when at its scariest.
    • Synonyms: vista
    1. (in the plural) eyes
      • 1374, Francesco Petrarca, “I' vidi in terra angelici costumi [I saw angelic virtue on earth]”, in Il Canzoniere[8] (in Italian), Florence: Andrea Bettini, published 1858, lines 5–8, page 157:
        E vidi lagrimar que' duo bei lumi, ¶ c'han fatto mille volte invidia al Sole; ¶ ed udii sospirando dir parole ¶ che farian gir i monti e stare i fiumi.
        And I saw two lovely eyes that wept, ¶ that made the sun a thousand times jealous; ¶ and I heard words emerge among sighs ¶ that made the mountains move, and halted rivers.
      • 1581, Torquato Tasso, Gerusalemme liberata [Jerusalem Delivered][9], Erasmo Viotti, Canto LX, page 372:
        e cadde tramortita: e ſi diffuſe ¶ di gelato ſudore: e i lumi chiuſe.
        and she fell to the ground, stunned, getting covered ¶ with freezing sweat, and closed her eyes.
      • 1835, Giacomo Leopardi, “I. All'Italia [To Italy]”, in Canti[10] (in Italian), Bari: Einaudi, published 1917, lines 134–136, page 7:
        Ché, se il fato è diverso, e non consente ¶ ch’io per la Grecia i moribondi lumi ¶ chiuda prostrato in guerra, []
        If fate’s opposed, and will not consent that I fall in war, and close my dying eyes, for Greece, []
      • Synonyms: occhi
  6. (figuratively) Spiritual or mental illumination, enlightenment, light
    • 1472, Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia: Purgatorio [The Divine Comedy: Purgatory] (paperback, in Italian), Bompiani, published 2001, Canto VI, lines 43–45, page 86:
      Veramente a così alto sospetto ¶ non ti fermar, se quella non ti dice ¶ che lume fia tra 'l vero e lo 'ntelletto.
      Verily, in so deep a questioning ¶ do not decide, unless she tell it thee, ¶ who light 'twixt truth and intellect shall be.
    1. (in the plural) The culture founded on a rationalistic basis.
      • 1766, Pietro Verri, “Conſiderazioni ſul Luſſo [Considerations upon Luxury]”, in Il caffè [The Café][11], volume 1, Pietro Pizzolato, page 188:
        i lumi finalmente che ogni giorno più vanno allontanando gli uomini dall'antica ferocia
        and lastly the enlightenment, which every day carries mankind further away from the ancient ferocity
      • 1764, Cesare Beccaria, “V. Oscurità delle leggi [Of the Obscurity of Laws]”, in Dei delitti e delle pene [On Crimes and Punishments][12] (in Italian), Paris: Dal Molini, published 1780, page 21:
        Da ciò veggiamo quanto sia utile la stampa, che rende il pubblico, e non alcuni pochi, depositario delle sante leggi, e quanto abbia dissipato quello spirito tenebroso di cabala e d’intrigo, che sparisce in faccia ai lumi ed alle scienze []
        Hence we see the use of printing, which makes the public, and not a few individuals, the guardians of the sacred laws, and how it has dissipated the gloomy spirit of cabal and intrigue, which disappears in the face of enlightenment and sciences []
  7. (figuratively, chiefly in the plural) Useful information, advice.
    • 1881, Giovanni Verga, I Malavoglia[13], Fratelli Treves, published 1907, Chapter VII, page 113:
      La seduta fu sciolta senza concludere nulla. Il segretario voleva un po’ di tempo per prender lume;
      The meeting was closed without deciding upon anything. The clerk wanted time to get up his subject.
    • Synonyms: chiarimento, consiglio
    1. (by extension) discernment
      • 1472, Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia: Purgatorio [The Divine Comedy: Purgatory] (paperback, in Italian), Bompiani, published 2001, Canto XVI, lines 73–75, page 237:
        Lo cielo i vostri movimenti inizia; ¶ non dico tutti, ma, posto ch'i' 'l dica, ¶ lume v'è dato a bene e a malizia
        The heavens your movements do initiate, ¶ I say not all; but granting that I say it, ¶ light has been given you for good and evil
      • Synonyms: discernimento
  8. (anatomy) lumen
  9. (fishing) The size of a fishing net's meshes.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Novial[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare French lumière.

Noun[edit]

lume c (plural lumes)

  1. light

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese lume, from Latin lūmen, from Proto-Indo-European *lewk-s-men, from *lewk-. Cognate with Galician lume, Spanish lumbre, Catalan llum, Occitan lum, French lume, Italian lume and Romanian lume.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

lume m (plural lumes)

  1. flame, fire (to cook or keep oneself warm)
  2. (anatomy) lumen

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin lūmen (light) (see figurative meaning as the "light of life"), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *lewk-s-men, from *lewk-. Compare also Slavic свѣтъ (světŭ), meaning both "light" and "world".

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

lume f (plural lumi)

  1. world
  2. people
  3. humanity, mankind
  4. (archaic, regional) light

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]