지다

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Korean[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?jida
Revised Romanization (translit.)?jida
McCune–Reischauer?chida
Yale Romanization?cita

Etymology 1[edit]

First attested in the Jīlín lèishì (鷄林類事 / 계림유사), 1103, as Late Old Korean  (Yale: *ti-).

In the Hangul script, first attested in the Worin seokbo (月印釋譜 / 월인석보), 1459, as Middle Korean 디다 (Yale: ti-ta). Original meaning: "to fall; to drop".

Verb[edit]

Korean verb set
Base 지다 (jida)
Causative지우다 (jiuda)

지다 (jida) (infinitive or 지어, sequential 지니) (intransitive)

  1. (auxiliary, after the / infinitive) to become, to get: turns adjectives into processive verbs; expresses change in state.
    새롭다 (saeropda, to be new) + ‎지다 (jida) → ‎새로워지다 (saerowojida, to become new)
    용감하다 (yonggamhada, to be brave) + ‎지다 (jida) → ‎용감해지다 (yonggamhaejida, to become brave)
  2. (auxiliary, after the / infinitive) forms intransitive or passive verbs from processive verbs; see usage notes.
    지나가다 (jinagada, to pass, go trough) + ‎지다 (jida) → ‎지나가지다 (jinagajida, to be possible to pass, go through)
    막다 (makda, to block) + ‎지다 (jida) → ‎막아지다 (magajida, to be blocked)
    주다 (juda, to give) + ‎지다 (jida) → ‎주어지다 (jueojida, to be given)
  3. (auxiliary, after the / infinitive, unproductive) suffix which formed intransitive passive constructions; usually the constructions have deviated from the original modern meaning of the verbs.
    Coordinate term: 뜨리다 (-tteurida)
    부수다 (busuda, to break) + ‎지다 (jida) → ‎부서지다 (buseojida, to be shattered)
    떨다 (tteolda, to tremble) + ‎지다 (jida) → ‎떨어지다 (tteoreojida, to fall)
  4. (of the sun) to sink; to set; to go down
    Antonym: 뜨다 (tteuda)
  5. (of flowers, also figurative) to wither and fall; to scatter; to be scattered
    Antonym: 피다 (pida)
  6. to come out (with a wash); to be removed; to be washed off
  7. (obsolete, original meaning) to fall
Usage notes[edit]
  • For the second auxiliary sense, the meaning of the suffix differs if the verb is intransitive, intransitive passive, or transitive.
    • For intransitive verbs, the suffix usually adds the meaning of potentiality, which, usually, goes over the speaker's expectations of the action happening.
    • For intransitive passive verbs, the suffix doesn't add any special meaning. This is usually done when the base transitive verb cannot take 어지다 (-eojida): 읽다 (ikda) -> 읽혀지다 (ilkyeojida), but *읽어지다 (*ilgeojida) is not correct. However, do note that this use of 어지다 (-eojida) is seen to be incorrect by the National Institute of Korean Language.
    • For transitive and ditransitive verbs, the suffix forms an intransitive verb with passive meaning. In such case, not every verb can have 어지다 (-eojida) added to it; see above.
Derived terms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

—지다 (-jida)

  1. Attached to nominal or verbal roots to form adjectives carrying the meaning of “with the characteristics of...”.

Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

First attested in the Worin seokbo (月印釋譜 / 월인석보), 1459, as Middle Korean 지다 (Yale: ci-ta).

Verb[edit]

Korean verb set
Base 지다 (jida)
Causative지우다 (jiuda)

지다 (jida) (infinitive or 지어, sequential 지니) (transitive)

  1. to carry on one's back; to bear
    지다.Deung-e jim-eul jida.to carry a load on one's back
  2. (figuratively) to undertake; to be charged with (the duty of); to assume (the responsibility of)
  3. (figuratively) to fall into (debt); to incur (a debt)
    10 지다.Sibeogwon-ui bij-eul jida.to owe 1 billion won
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

First attested in the Bullyu dugongbu si eonhae (分類杜工部詩諺解 / 분류두공부시언해), 1481, as Middle Korean 디다 (Yale: ti-ta).

Also attested in the Beonyeok baktongsa (飜譯朴通事 / 번역박통사), before 1517, as Middle Korean 지다 (Yale: ci-ta).

Verb[edit]

Korean verb set
Base 지다 (jida)
Passive지우다 (jiuda)

지다 (jida) (infinitive or 지어, sequential 지니) (transitive or intransitive)

  1. to be defeated; to lose; to be beaten
    Synonyms: 패(敗)하다 (paehada), 패배(敗北)하다 (paebaehada)
    Antonym: 이기다 (igida)
    게임에서 지다geim-eseo jidato lose a game
    경기에서 지다gyeonggi-eseo jidato lose a match
    싸움 지다ssaum-eul jidato lose a battle
  2. to surrender (to); to bow (to)
  3. to be inferior (to); to be second (to)
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Middle Korean[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /tsita/

Verb[edit]

지다 (cita)

  1. (auxiliary) to want, to desire
    • 14th century?, “鄭石歌 (Jeongseok-ga)”, in 樂章歌詞 (Akjang Gasa):
      그쇠텰초를머거아유덕ᄒᆞ신님여ᄒᆡᄋᆞ와지이다
      ku soy tyelcwo-lul mekeya yutek-hosin nim yehoyowa cingita
      Only if that cow eats iron grass shall I desire to depart from my virtuous lover