國書

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Chinese[edit]

country; state; nation book; letter
trad. (國書)
simp. (国书)
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Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (28) (26)
Final () (132) (22)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () I III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kwək̚/ /ɕɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʷək̚/ /ɕiɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuək̚/ /ɕiɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwək̚/ /ɕɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/kuək̚/ /ɕiɔ/
Wang
Li
/kuək̚/ /ɕĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kwək̚/ /ɕi̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guo shū
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gwak1 syu1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guó shū
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwok › ‹ syo ›
Old
Chinese
/*[C.q]ʷˁək/ /*s-ta/
English state (n.) write

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 5547 17013
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʷɯːɡ/ /*hlja/

Noun[edit]

國書

  1. credentials
  2. (diplomacy) letter of credence
  3. documents exchanged between nations
  4. national script; national writing system

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (國書):
  • Japanese: 国書(こくしょ) (kokusho)
  • Korean: 국서 (國書, gukseo)
  • Vietnamese: quốc thư (國書)