keras

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Estonian[edit]

Noun[edit]

keras

  1. inessive singular of kera

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Malay keras, from Classical Malay keras, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *kəʀas.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /kəˈras/
  • Hyphenation: ke‧ras

Adjective[edit]

kêras

  1. hard,
    1. (of material) Resistant to pressure.
      Roti itu terlalu keras untuk dipotong.
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      Synonym: kuat
    2. (figuratively) Demanding a lot of effort to endure.
      Ia baru menyadari kerasnya kehidupan(please add an English translation of this usage example)
      Synonyms: pelik, sulit, susah
      Antonyms: gampang, mudah
    3. (figuratively) Severe, harsh.
      kata-kata keras(please add an English translation of this usage example)
      Antonym: lembut
    4. (of drugs, figuratively) Having a high concentration of an essential or active ingredient; strong.
      Obat keras.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    5. (of a man, figuratively) Having an erect penis; erect.
      Synonyms: bangun, ereksi, tegang
      Antonyms: lembek, loyo, tidur
  2. strong
    1. (of wind, figuratively) Having a lot of power.
      Synonyms: cepat, kencang
      Antonym: pelan
    2. (of disease or symptom, figuratively) Very bad or intense; severe.
      Ia sakit keras(please add an English translation of this usage example)
      Synonyms: parah, payah
      Antonym: ringan
    3. (figuratively) Having an offensive or intense odor.
  3. (material state) rigid; firm; stiff.
    Ototnya sangat keras dan alot.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Antonym: lembut
  4. (of foods, figuratively) Difficult to cut or chew; tough.
    Synonyms: kenyal, liat
  5. (figuratively) Likely to use physical force; violent.
    Ia menarik secara keras kedua tangan anaknya yang menangis meronta-ronta(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Synonym: kuat
    Antonym: pelan
  6. (of a sound, figuratively) Of great intensity; loud.
    Suaranya sangat keras sehingga menggangu orang lain.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Synonyms: kuat, nyaring
    Antonyms: lembut, pelan
  7. (of water current, figuratively) Moving with great speed; fast.
    Synonym: deras
  8. (of rainfall, figuratively) very heavy
  9. (of opinion, figuratively) fixed
  10. (of price, figuratively) With speed; in a rapid manner; rapidly.
  11. (of cigarettes, figuratively) Likely cause dizziness
    Synonym: berat
    Antonym: ringan
  12. strong, strict and seriously

Hyponyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *k(ʷ)er(H)-. Cognate with Proto-Slavic *kory (root) and Latvian cȩrs (bush, knotty root of a tree).

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

kẽras m (plural keraĩ) stress pattern 4

  1. bush, shrub
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *ker-, *kēr-, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷer-. Cognate with Proto-Slavic *čarъ (magic, sorcery).

Noun[edit]

kẽras m (plural keraĩ) stress pattern 4

  1. divination, sorcery, enchantment
Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • keras in Lietuvių kalbos etimologinio žodyno duomenų bazė [Lithuanian etymological dictionary database]
  • Derksen, Rick (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 78f; 237

Malay[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *kəʀas.

Adjective[edit]

kĕras (Jawi spelling کرس‎)

  1. hard, stiff
  2. rigid, inflexible
  3. obstinate

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]