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  1. conditional of durar



From Proto-Italic *dūros, from Proto-Indo-European *duh₂-ró-s (long), from *dweh₂- (far, long). Cognate with Ancient Greek δηρός (dērós, long), Sanskrit दूर (dūrá, distant, far, long), though there are semantic problems if the change “long” > “enduring” (see dūrō) is not accepted.

Alternatively, from Proto-Indo-European *deru-, *drew- (hard, fast). Cognate with Lithuanian drū́tas (firm, strong), Old English trum (strong, firm).



dūrus (feminine dūra, neuter dūrum, comparative dūrior, superlative dūrissimus, adverb dūrē or dūriter); first/second-declension adjective

  1. hard, rough (of a touch)
    Synonyms: firmus, rōbustus
    • 8 CE, Ovid, Fasti 3.782:
      nec crīmen dūrās esset habēre manūs
      nor was it an offense to have rough hands [as a result of doing hard manual labor]
  2. harsh (of a taste)
  3. hardy, vigorous
  4. unyielding, unfeeling, stern
  5. oppressive, severe
    Dura lex, sed lex.
    The law is harsh but it is the law.


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative dūrus dūra dūrum dūrī dūrae dūra
Genitive dūrī dūrae dūrī dūrōrum dūrārum dūrōrum
Dative dūrō dūrō dūrīs
Accusative dūrum dūram dūrum dūrōs dūrās dūra
Ablative dūrō dūrā dūrō dūrīs
Vocative dūre dūra dūrum dūrī dūrae dūra

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


  • Proto-Brythonic: *dʉr (hard; hard metal, steel)
  • Catalan: dur
  • Dalmatian: doir
  • English: dure
  • French: dur
  • Friulian: dûr
  • Galician: duro
  • Istriot: doûro
  • Italian: duro
  • Ligurian: dûo
  • Lombard: dür
  • Middle Irish: dúr
  • Norman:
  • Occitan: dur
  • Portuguese: duro
  • Romanian: dur
  • Romansch: dir
  • Sardinian: duru
  • Sicilian: duru
  • Spanish: duro
  • Venetian: duro, dur
  • Walloon: deur


  • durus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • durus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • durus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • durus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, 1st edition. (Oxford University Press)