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Alternative forms[edit]


From Proto-Italic *fermos, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰer-mo-s (holding) (whence also Sanskrit धर्म (dharma)), from the root *dʰer- (to hold) (whence also ferē and fermē).

Cognate with Sanskrit धरति (dhárati), Old Persian 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎫𐎡𐎹 (d-a-r-y-t-i-y /⁠dārayatiy⁠/), Persianداشتن(have, hold), Lithuanian derė́ti, Russian держа́ть (deržátʹ).[1]



firmus (feminine firma, neuter firmum, comparative firmior, superlative firmissimus, adverb firmiter); first/second-declension adjective

  1. strong, powerful
    Synonyms: praevalēns, validus, fortis, potis, potēns, strēnuus, ingēns, compos
    Antonyms: dēbilis, languidus, aeger, fractus, tenuis, obnoxius, inops
  2. stable, firm
    Synonyms: dūrus, rōbustus
    Antonym: īnfirmus
  3. faithful, steadfast, true


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative firmus firma firmum firmī firmae firma
Genitive firmī firmae firmī firmōrum firmārum firmōrum
Dative firmō firmō firmīs
Accusative firmum firmam firmum firmōs firmās firma
Ablative firmō firmā firmō firmīs
Vocative firme firma firmum firmī firmae firma

Derived terms[edit]


  • Catalan: ferm
  • Corsican: fermu
  • Dalmatian: farm
  • English: firm
  • Esperanto: firmo
  • French: ferme
  • Friulian: fêr
  • German: firm
  • Italian: fermo
  • Occitan: ferm
  • Portuguese: firme
  • Romanian: ferm
  • Sardinian: fírmu
  • Sicilian: fermu
  • Spanish: firme


  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “firmus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 223

Further reading[edit]

  • firmus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • firmus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • firmus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • a strong, striking proof: argumentum firmum, magnum
  • firmus”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • firmus in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016