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From Proto-Indo-European *dʰer-mo-s (holding), from the root *dʰer- (to hold) (whence also ferē and fermē). Cognates include Sanskrit धरति (dharati), Old Persian 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎠𐎷𐎹 (dārayāmiy), Persian دار (dār, have, hold) Lithuanian derė́ti and Russian держать (deržát’).



fīrmus (feminine fīrma, neuter fīrmum); first/second declension

  1. stable, strong, firm
  2. faithful, steadfast, true


First/second declension.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative fīrmus fīrma fīrmum fīrmī fīrmae fīrma
genitive fīrmī fīrmae fīrmī fīrmōrum fīrmārum fīrmōrum
dative fīrmō fīrmō fīrmīs
accusative fīrmum fīrmam fīrmum fīrmōs fīrmās fīrma
ablative fīrmō fīrmā fīrmō fīrmīs
vocative fīrme fīrma fīrmum fīrmī fīrmae fīrma


Related terms[edit]



  • firmus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • firmus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • firmus” in Félix Gaffiot’s Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette (1934)
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • a strong, striking proof: argumentum firmum, magnum
  • firmus in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • firmus in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016